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Philosophy Week 2

by: Alexia Dixon

Philosophy Week 2 PHIL 1305

Marketplace > Texas State University > phil > PHIL 1305 > Philosophy Week 2
Alexia Dixon
Texas State

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About this Document

Philosophy, Lecture Notes, Bias, Deductive
Philosophy and Critical Thinking
Dr. Ozturk
Class Notes
philosophy lecture notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Dixon on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1305 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Ozturk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Philosophy and Critical Thinking in phil at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Philosophy 1305: Critical Thinking Validity Revisited Valid Arguments: Truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion - Being valid nor sufficient for being a good argument, some invalid arguments that are good arguments Alternative ways to think about validity 1. If all premises were the conclusion would have to be true 2. Impossible for all premises were false conclusion would be impossible to be true o Validity doesn’t require premises or true conclusion o Validity doesn’t say anything about what happens when or more are actually false. Doesn’t say any of the premises are false, conclusion must be false. o Doesn’t say anything about what happens if the conclusion is true. Doesn’t say that if the conclusion is true premises are true Example: - Bugs Bunny is a horse - All horses have 13 legs - Therefore, Bugs Bunny has 13 legs = Valid Argument Counterexample: Can use to show an argument is invalid, premises of argument is true, but conclusion is false Example: - IF Tom overslept, he will have been late to work - Tom was late to work -Therefore, Tom did oversleep = Invalid, but Tom could’ve been late to work because traffic, car troubles. Doesn’t mean the conclusion Is necessarily true. No counter examples for valid arguments, because premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion Deductive vs Inductive Arguments Deductive: Premises should guarantee the conclusion of the argument, if a deductive argument is invalid = bad argument, Intended it to be valid but it is invalid, they’re bad deductive arguments. Inductive: Premises make the conclusion highly likely, Inductive arguments are invalid but they could still be good, Makes the argument highly probable without actually guaranteeing Defeasible: Possible all premises are true and false conclusion Invalid arguments = compelling inductive arguments Example : - Sally is my best friend and she has never lied to me in the past 8 years I have known her -Therefore Sally was telling me the truth when she said my partner was cheating on me = Invalid Argument Relevance: Reasons we hold out beliefs should be relevant to the conclusion Example: - Sam is a vegetarian - Hitler was also a vegetarian ---- - Therefore, Sam should stop being a vegetarian = Not Valid, Not compelling = the 2 ndpremise is not relevant to the question whether Sam’s opinion is true or false, justified or unjustified. Logical implification Example: a. I am hungry and tired b. I am hungry c. I am tired = (A) logically implies (B) because it is impossible for (B) to be false If (A) were true, (B) and (C) logically implies it Predictive Power: Does the premise predict the conclusion? Explanatory Power: Does premise explain why the conclusion to be true? - If “yes” to any of these questions the premise is relevant, if “no” to all of these the premise is probably irrelevant Context & Background Information Example: - This man is wearing a straightjacket - Therefore, he must have escaped from a mental institution = Could be a good argument depends on the context, If the man is wearing the straitjacket during Halloween, then it is not a compelling argument. If the man is wearing the straitjacket any other day of the year, then it is a compelling argument Bias - Systemic tendency to reason badly - Having a strong opinion is neither bias nor always people bias Confirmation bias: Notice, remember and only look for only or mostly evidence would confirm their beliefs - Almost universal


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