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by: Rachel

Learning 1301 Psych

Sam Houston State University
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

notes form chapter 5 and lecture
Introductory Psychology
Dr Allen
Class Notes
learning, Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1301 Psych at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 10/01/16
Learning Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Learning The process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. Associative Learning When a subject links certain events, behaviors or stimuli together in the process of conditioning. A type of learning in which one learns to links two or more stimuli and anticipate events Classical Conditioning • Focuses on observable, measurable Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) A natural occurring stimulus that ordinarily leads to an involuntary response Define the different Stimulus Unconditioned Response (UCR) Involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response when paired repeatedly with the UCS Conditioned Response (CR) Response that is given to the CS • CS must come BEFORE the UCS • CS and UCS must come very close together in time (<5 sec) • CS must be paired with the UCS many times Basic Principles for Classical • CS must be distinct from other competing stimuli Conditioning to occur Before Conditioning The dog drools when it smells food. The smell is the Unconditioned Stimuli (The original involuntary response) The drooling is the Unconditioned or natural response Ringing a bell will be the Neutral Stimuli (Conditioned Stimulus) During Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus = Food smell is paired with the Neutral Stimulus i.e. the bell sound and the results to the unconditioning response (drooling) After Conditioning The neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus The natural response (UCS) becomes the conditioned response Stimulus Generalization Response to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS Stimulus Discrimination Response to a different stimuli in different ways Extinction Presentation of the CS in the absence of the UCS leads to the reduction in the CR Key features Spontaneous Recovery Reappearance of a previously extinguished CR Higher order conditioning Occurs when strong CS is paired with new neutral stimulus; new previously neutral stimuli becomes a second CS Vicarious Conditioning Can occur by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus Conditioned Emotional Responses Emotional responses that have become classically conditioned to occur in response to learned stimuli based on the work of John Watson; helps explain development of phobias Conditioned Taste Aversion Is one situation where classical conditioning can occur quickly without repeated pairings A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher • Focuses on observable and measurable behavior States that: • If an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence then the action is repeated • If an action is followed by a unpleasable consequence then the action is NOT repeated Operant Conditioning He coined the term operant conditioning and found out that learning happens what happens after the response Edward Thorndike Law of Positive Reinforcement Effect A stimuli that when presented after a response strengthens the response. A positive reinforcement adds to the scenario Negative Reinforcement Any stimuli that, when removed after a response strengthen the response. Negative is not necessarily bad, but it takes away from scenario. Negative Reinforcement is NOT the same as a punishment Skinner's Contribution Primary Reinforcer Satisfies basic biological needs ( hunger, thirst) Conditioned/Secondary Reinforcer A stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer Types of Reinforcements ReinforcementSchedule A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Partial ( Intermittent ) Reinforcement Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but munch resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. Seligman originally studied escape and avoidance learning in dogs discovered that the animals did nothing in a specific situation learned helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a past history of repeated failures; or according to recent work by Maier, possibly due to not learned helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a past history of repeated failures; or according to recent work by Maier, possibly due to not learning how to relax and take control accompanied by activation of key brain structures Köhler worked with chimpanzees; set up a problem situation chimp first exhibited trial-and-error approach later appeared to experience a sudden insight into solving the problem (retrieving a banana) Key people and Ideas Tolman worked with rats in a maze and suggested animals form a cognitive map of the physical layout of the maze performance not due to reinforcement latent learning: learning occurs but behavior not manifested until organism has reason to demonstrate it Observational Learning one single perspective is used to explain all human behavior and processes. children observing an adult model’s aggressive or nonaggressive behaviors tended to later act in the same manner they saw modeled; no reinforcement was necessary later research suggested that potential consequences can influence motivation to imitate a particular model key elements for learner • pay attention to the model • able to remember what was done • capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model • have the desire or motivation to perform the action


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