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Music 101- Week 5

by: Zackary Windham

Music 101- Week 5 Music 101

Zackary Windham

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These notes cover everything from Ch. 22-23 and 25-27 in The Enjoyment of Music, as well as class notes from September 26th. Essentially everything you'd need to know for class on October 3rd, 2016.
Introduction to Music
Hannah C. McLaughlin
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Unit 2: Medieval through Baroque 26 Sep 2016  The Baroque Period -Religious wars; Thirty Years War -Absolute Monarchs; King Louis XIV -Propaganda; for the church, for the nation -Direct contact w/ public  Art in the Baroque Period -Overwhelming detail and extravagance; evidence of power, glory, and status -Caters to human emotions -Relatable, down-to-earth, real human emotions -Action-oriented, capturing motion -Art = Drama!  “Baroque” means misshapen. It was initially kind of a burn toward the period’s over dramatization and business.  Baroque period was all about contrast.  The Florentine Camerala (sp?) wanted to recreate Greek drama, and after studying, came to the (wrong) conclusion that the Greeks must have sung everything. This is how opera started. As a research mistake.  Opera -Large-scale drama that is sung -Libretto = the text used in an opera, written by a Librettist -2 kinds of singing: recitative (kind of like speech) and aria (emotional, structured, ABA form) -Soloists and chorus -Castrati  The Baroque Orchestra -Small -Strings prominent -No percussion, some woodwinds and horns -Basso continuo (bass instrument, usually cello, and chord instrument, usually harpsichord) form the bass line basically -Ritornello: an orchestral passage that repeats within an aria  During an aria, the full orchestra plays, but during recitatives it’s usually just basso continuo.  Basso continuo plays using a figured bass.  Opera in England -Mix of Italian opera and English masque -Henry Purcell (Dido and Aeneas, 1689) The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 22, “Musical Sermons: Bach and the Lutheran Cantata”  Martin Luther believes musical worship belongs to the congregation.  Luther and his followers created weekly chorales.  The Lutheran Cantata is an elaboration on chorales.  Johann Sebastian Bach was the culminating figure of Baroque style. Wrote many of his most important works for the organ, as he was an organ virtuoso. He wrote Wachet auf. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 23, “Textures of Worship: Handel and the English Oratorio”  George Frideric Handel broke the trend of artists falling into obscurity; his works are still performed today.  The oratorio is a great Baroque sacred vocal form. Comes from Italian word for “place of prayer”. Descends from the 2 ideas of playing with music in the Counter-Reformation (like what Palestrina worked with). A large-scale musical work for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. Generally based on a biblical story. Sort of like opera, but religiously themed?  Handel combines the ideas of the Italian Opera and the Catholic oratorio to form the English oratorio.  English oratorios were not church sponsored.  Handel’s pieces become very popular, especially since they are mainly about a chosen people, which appealed to the then flourishing England. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 25, “Grace and Grandeur: The Baroque Dance Suite”  Instruments began to develop and become more technologically capable.  The Baroque suite was a group of short dances performed by a diverse array of instruments.  Dance types include the following: -allemande (German) -courante (French) -sarabande (Spanish) -jig (English) -minuet -gavotte -bourrée -passepied -hornpipe  Each piece in a suite was either in binary form (A-A-B-B) or ternary form (A-B-A). A part usually moves from the tonic to the dominant key. The B part usually moves back 3 to the tonic. Usually a cadence, or full stop, at the end of each section.  Handel wrote Water Music, an orchestral suite. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 26, “Sounding Spring: Vivaldi and the Baroque Concerto”  The Baroque concerto was an instrumental form based on opposition between two dissimilar bodies of sound. Usually contrasted one or more featured instruments with a larger orchestra ensemble.  Antonio Vivaldi was the son of a violinist and grew up in Venice. He wrote a lot of concertos. Also wrote The Four Seasons.  Concertos usually follow ritornello form, where there is an alternation between orchestral refrains and virtuosic outbursts by the soloist.  The Four Seasons has poems with each of the four movements, where the text is illustrated by what is happening in the music at the moment; however, the poem is not spoken aloud, simply written on the music. This is called program music. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 27, “Process as Meaning: Bach and the Fugue”  The organ and harpsichord begin to become more refined and popular.  A fugue is a contrapuntal composition in which a single theme pervades the entire piece; set in ideas of imitation. The main theme is the subject.  The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra is a good example of a fugue. 4  The subject is first stated by one voice, then another voice gives an answer in the form of repeating the subject while the first voice plays a countersubject.  When the subject is presented in each voice, the exposition or first section of the fugue has ended.  Contrapuntal devices include augmentation, slowing the melody, diminution, speeding up the melody, retrograde, playing the pitches backwards, or inversion, where the melody is essentially turned upside down.  Bach wrote Contrapunctus I in The Art of Fugue. 5


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