Chapter 2- Theoretical Perspectives and Research
Chapter 2- Theoretical Perspectives and Research HD 1004
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Katarina Krizova (Doctoral Student) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Development I in Human Development at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapter 2- Theoretical Perspectives and Research Introduction Perspectives on Children Each broad perspective encompasses one or more theories, broad, organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest. Theory provides framework for understanding the relationships among a seemingly unorganized set of facts or principles Personal theories are built on unverified observations that are developed haphazardly Child developmental theories are built more formal, based on systematic integration of prior findings and theorizing; also allow them to move beyond existing observations to draw deductions that may not be immediately apparent The Psychodynamic Perspective: Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control. The inner forces, which may stem from one’s childhood, continually influence behavior throughout the life span. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory- (1856-1939) Viennese physician whose revolutionary ideas ultimately had a profound effect not just on the fields of psychology and psychiatry but on Western thought in general Suggested that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior The unconscious is a part of the personality about which a person in unaware; it contains infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that, because of their disturbing nature, are hidden from the conscious awareness. The unconscious is responsible for a good part of our everyday behavior Personality has 3 aspects: id, ego, and superego Id- the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that is present at birth Represents drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses Operates according the pleasure principle Ego- the rational and reasonable personality Acts as a buffer between the real world outside of us and the primitive id Operates on the reality principle Superego- the conscious Incorporates right and wrong Develops around age 5 or 6 and is learned from parents, teachers, and other figures Argued that psychosexual development occurs as children passed through a series of stages in which pleasure or gratification, was focused on a particular biological function and body part: fixation will occur if too much gratification or not enough is focused in one stage Oral stage (birth to 12-18 months) Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, biting Anal stage (12-18 months to 3 years) Gratification from expelling and withholding feces; coming to terms with society’s controls related to toilet training Phallic stage (3 to 5-6 years) Interest in the genitals; coming to terms with oedipal conflict, leading to identification with same sex parent Latency stage (5-6 years to adolescence) Sexual concerns largely unimportant Genital stage (adolescence to adulthood) Reemergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships Erikson’s psychosocial theory- (1902-1994) Emphasizes social interaction with other people; both society and culture challenge and shape us Psychosocial development encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society Suggested that developmental change occurs throughout our lives in eight distinct stages The stages are in a fixed pattern and similar for all people Each stage presents a crisis or conflict that the individual must resolve Suggested that growth and change continue throughout life span Middle adulthood- people pass through the generativity-versus- stagnation stage in which their contributions to family, community, and society can produce either positive feelings or a sense of stagnation and disappointment about what they are passing on to future generations Assessing the Psychodynamic Perspective: We carry with us memories- of which we are not consciously aware- that have a significant impact on our behavior Freud’s stages as going through childhood, has been called in to question Also been questioned because he focused on male development and his population was limited to upper-class Austrians Erikson’s view is vague and hard to test Also focuses more on men than women Behavioral Perspective: Suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment: If we know the stimuli, we can predict the behavior Reflects the view that nurture is more important to development than nature Rejects the idea that people pass through stages Instead, developmental patterns occur reflecting a set of stimuli of which they are exposed to Developmental change is viewed in quantitative, rather than qualitative form Classical Conditioning: Stimulus Substitution Occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not evoke that type of response Example: dog salivating to the sound of a bell Explains how we learn emotional response John B. Watson (1878- 1958): Believed strongly that we could gain a full understanding of development by carefully studying the stimuli that make up the environment Argued that by effectively controlling a person’s environment, it was possible to produce virtually any behavior Operant Conditioning: Form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences Differs from classical, in which the response being conditioned is voluntary and purposeful rather than automatic B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Individuals learn to act deliberately on their environments in order to bring about desired consequences Children operate on their environments to bring about a desired state of affairs -Whether children will repeat their behavior depends on reinforcement -Punishment will decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future Behavior Modification: a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones Social-Cognitive Learning Theory- An approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model Albert Bandura Proceeds in 4 steps 1. Observer must pay attention and perceive the most critical features of a model’s behavior 2. The observer must successfully recall the behavior 3. The Observer must reproduce the behavior accurately 4. The observer must be motivated to learn and carry out the behavior Behavior is learned through observation; we don’t need to experience the consequences of a behavior ourselves to learn it When we see a behavior being rewarded, we are likely to imitate it Assessing the Behavioral Perspective: Both classical and operant conditioning consider learning in terms of external stimuli and responses, in which the only important factors are the observable features of the environment Cognitive Perspective: Focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world Emphasizes how people internally represent and think about the world Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor (Birth-2 years)- development of object performance (idea that people/objects exist even when they can’t be seen); development of motor skills; little or no capacity for symbolic representation Preoperational (2-7 years) – Development of language and symbolic thinking; egocentric thinking Concrete Operational (7-12 years) – Development of conservation (idea that quantity is unrelated to physical appearance); mastery of concept of reversibility Formal Operational (12 years- adulthood) – Development of logical and abstract thinking Suggested that children’s adaptation- his term for the way in which children respond and adjust to new information 2 basic principles: Accommodation: refers to change in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events Assimilation: when people use their current ways of thinking about and understanding the world to perceive and understand a new experience Both work in tandem to bring about cognitive development Assessing his Theory: Broad view is accurate Specifics of the theory, particularly in terms of change in cognitive skills clearly emerge earlier than Piaget suggested. Furthermore, some stages have been disrupted. Information-Processing Approaches- to cognitive development seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information Like computer, children are assumed by information-processing approaches to have limited capacity for processing information As they develop, they employ sophisticated strategies that allow them to process information more efficiently Marked by more quantitative advances Capacity to handle information changes with age, as does our processing speed and efficiency; as we age, we are better able to control the nature of processing and that we can change the strategies we choose to process information Assessing Information-Processing Approaches Have become a central part of our understanding of development Do not offer a complete explanation for behavior Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches Look at cognitive development through the lens of brain processes Consider internal, mental processes, but they focus specifically on the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive behavior Provide clues to the cause of autism spectrum disorder A major developmental disability that can produce profound language deficits and self-injurious behavior in young carriage On the forefront of cutting-edge research that has identified specific genes that are associated with disorders ranging from physical problems such as breast cancer to psychological disorders such as schizophrenia Assessing Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches: Represent a new frontier in child and adolescent development Able to peer into the inner functioning of the brain Critics suggest that is sometimes provides a better description than explanation of developmental phenomena Contextual Perspective: considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds Suggests that a child’s unique development cannot be properly viewed without seeing the child enmeshed within a complex social and cultural context Bioecological Approach to Development: Emphasizes the interconnectedness of the influences on development Changes on one environmental level may make little difference if other levels are not also changed Stresses the importance of broad cultural factors that affect development Urie Bronfenbrenner (1989, 2000, 2002) – suggested that five levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals Notes that we cannot fully understand development without considering how a person is influenced by each of these levels 1. Microsystem- everyday, immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives 2. Mesosystem- provides connections among the various aspects of the microsystem; binds children to parents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, friends to friends 3. Exosystem- represents broader influences, encompassing societal institutions such as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media 4. Macrosystem- represents the larger cultural influences on an individual. Society in general, types of governments, religious and political value systems, and other broad, encompassing factors are parts of the macrosystem 5. Chronosystem- underlies each of the previous systems; it involves the way the passage of the time, including historical events and more gradual historical changes, affects children’s development The Influence of Culture North American culture violates the premises of individualism (the dominant Western philosophy that emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness, freedom, and the worth of the individual) Asian Culture agrees with collectivism (the notion that the well-being of the group is more important than that of the individual) Tend to emphasize the welfare of the groups to which they belong Individualism-collectivism spectrum is one of several dimensions along which cultures differ Assessing the Bioecological Approach: Ecological influences are central to the theory It is of considerable importance to child development, suggesting as it does the multiple levels at which the environment affects children’s development Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory- Russian developmentalist (1896-1934) described the full understanding of development was impossible without taking into account the culture in which children develop Emphasizes how cognitive development process as a result of social interactions between members of culture Argued that children’s understanding of the world is acquired through their problem-solving interactions with adults and other children Emphasizes that development is a reciprocal transaction between the people in a child’s environment and the child Assessing Vygotsky’s Theory: Has become increasingly influential because of the acknowledgment of the central importance of cultural factors in development Theory is helping us to understand the rich and varied influences that shape development Evolutionary Perspective- Seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors Focuses on how genetics and environmental factors combine to influence behavior Grown outward since research of Darwin Contend that our genetic inheritance determines not only such physical traits as skin and eye color, but certain personality traits and social behaviors as well Draws heavily on the field of ethology (examines the ways in which our biological makeup influences our behavior) Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) - discovered that newborn geese are genetically preprogrammed to become attached to the first moving object they see after birth Behavioral genetics: studies the effects of heredity on behavior Considers how genetic factors may produce psychological disorders such as schizophrenia Critics say it shows insufficient attention to the environmental and social factors in producing children’s and adult’s behavior Others argue there is no good way to experiment SUMMARY OF PERSEPECTIVES--- Psychodynamic: Behavior throughout life is motivated by inner, unconscious forces, stemming from childhood, over which we have little control Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson This view might suggest that an adolescent who is overweight has a fixation in the oral stage of development Behavioral: Development can be understood through studying observable behavior and environmental stimuli John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura In this perspective, an adolescent who is overweight might be seen as not being rewarded for good nutritional and exercise habits Cognitive: Emphasis is on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world affect behavior Jean Piaget This view might suggest that an adolescent who is overweight hasn’t learned effective ways to stay at a healthy weight and doesn’t value good nutrition Contextual: Behavior is determined by the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social, and physical worlds Lev Vygotsky, Uric Bronfenbrenner In the view an adolescent may become overweight because of a family environment in which food and meals are unusually important and intertwined with family rituals Evolutionary: Behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors; traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection Konrad Lorenz; influenced by early Darwin This view might suggest than an adolescent might have a genetic tendency toward obesity because extra fat helped his or her ancestors to survive in times of famine Scientific Theory: Scientific method= process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data 1. Identifying questions of interest 2. Formulating an explanation 3. Carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it Theories: Personal theories are built on unverified observations that are developed haphazardly Developmentalist’s theories are more formal, based on a systematic integration of prior findings and theorizing Hypotheses: Prediction state din a way that permits it to be tested Research Strategy: Answering Questions Operationalization is the process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed Correlational research seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists Experimental research is designed to discover casual relationships among various factors Represents the heart of developmental research The Correlation Coefficient: A mathematical score that represent the strength and direction of a relationship between two factors Ranges from +1.0 to -1.0 Positive correlation = as the value of one factor increases, it can be predicted that the value of the other will also increase The stronger the association between the factors, the closer the coefficient to +1.0 Negative correlation = as the value of one factor decreases, the value of the other factor decreases The stronger the association between the factors, the close the coefficient to -1.0 No association = coefficient of 0 Types of Correlational Studies: Naturalistic observation- observation of a naturally occurring behavior without intervention in the situation “Natural habitat” Ethnography and Qualitative Research- method borrowed from the field of anthropology and used to investigate cultural questions Goal is to understand a culture’s values and attitudes through careful, extended examination Several drawbacks: can influence behavior because they know they are being watched Case Studies- involve extensive, in depth interviews with a particular individual or small group Survey Research- a group chosen to represent some larger population is asked questions about attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic Not always effective Psychophysiological methods- focus on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior Most frequently measure the following: EEG; CAT scan; MRI Experiment- an investigator devises two different experiences for participants Treatment- procedure applied by an investigator Designing an Experiment: IV; DV; control; random assignment (participants are assigned to experimental groups by chance alone); hypothesis Theoretical Research: Designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge Theoretical research can provide concrete solutions to a range of practical problems Applied research: Meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems Most applied research can help advance our theoretical understanding of a particular topical area Longitudinal Research: The behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age Measures change in individuals over time, enabling researchers to understand the general course of change across some period of life Has provided great insight into language development Cross-sectional research: People of different ages are compared at the same point in time Provide information about differences in development among different age groups Considerably more economical than longitudinal research Sequential studies: A combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies Researchers examine a number of different age groups at several points in time Research Study Laws: Researchers must protect participants from physical and psychological harm Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in a study The use of a deception in research must be justified and cause no harm Participant’s privacy must be maintained