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Week 2: the archaic ages & the dark ages

by: Taylor O'Toole

Week 2: the archaic ages & the dark ages Hist 2050

Marketplace > University of Toledo > History > Hist 2050 > Week 2 the archaic ages the dark ages
Taylor O'Toole
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This is week 2 of Ancient Greek.
Ancient Greece
Caitlin Ryan Jewell
Class Notes
Ancient Greece, history, history2050
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor O'Toole on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 2050 at University of Toledo taught by Caitlin Ryan Jewell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Ancient Greece in History at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 10/01/16
Week 2: the archaic age & the dark ages ­ Early archaic age ­ Power vacuum coming out of the Dark ages ­ Ethnos (small tribal groups) ­ Archaic age sees the culmination of various social/political  tensions and developments that had taken root in the dark ages ­ The polis ­ Independent and autonomous ­ Led to increased sense of regionalism and identity ­ Organized on and around the idea of citizenship ­ For all indigenous free inhabitants ­ Citizens not all equal ­ Consisted of a city center and the outlying countryside ­ Patron god/goddess ­ The city state ­ Much more than just physical borders/boundaries ­ Community life ­ The good of the whole ­ Tight knit ­ The basic and essential unit through which social and political life  developed ­ Allowed there to be a political life ­ Fostered intense local allegiances ­ Provided a medium for order and stability ­ Recognised that they are Hellenes over all ­ Classes of the polis ­ Social classes ­ Really applied only to citizen men ­ Upper aristocratic class, a middle landowning class, and a lower  impoverished class ­ Sharply stratified along class lines ­ Not an egalitarian society ­ Aristoi: Hoi Agathoi ­ “The good” ­ Claimed descent from Homeric heroes and men of  greek myths ­ Class solidarity and preservation of power/prestige = crucial ­ Hereditary control of the land and positions of power based on  birth and wealth ­ Controlled most political positions ­ Laid claim to a majority of good lands ­ Attempted an even distribution of power and offices ­ Why the polis? ­ Synoecism ­ voluntary or forced ­ Efficient way of organizing tribes ­ Natural progression ­ defense , stability, security, and order ­ Boom in population and economy after the dark ages ­ Gave momentum to change ­ Continuance of dark age trends ­ Demand may have been made for more equitable treatment ­ Aristocrats spin to advantage? ­ Hoplite revolution ­ Well­armored ­ helmet , breastplate/body armor, greaves/shin  guards ­ Armed with a round shield (hoplon), a long spear,  and a short sword ­ Male citizen, but not every male ­ Had to buy own equipment, so it was restricted to  those who could afford it ­ Essentially aristocrats and well off farmers and  craftsmen ­ Became most efficient way to fight ­ Phalanx and battle ­ Hoplites fought in the phalanx formation ­ Lined up shoulder to shoulder, shield to shield, with rows  repeating behind them ­ Success depends on every man holding his position ­ Battle was quick; often not to many casualties, but was difficult  and terrifying ­ The polis and hoplite army ­ Military equivalent of the ideology of “community” ­ Unit over the individual ­ Displaced the Homeric warrior who fought for his own glory with  one who fought for his polis ­ All hoplites were essentially equal on the field; all were necessary ­ Gave the non­elite hoplites a certain degree of  power within the state ­ Affected both social and political life in the polis Dark Ages ­ The fall of the mycenaeans ­ Everything collapses ­ What happened? ­ What can we see? ­ Fires; destruction ­ Destabilization; lack of infrastructure ­ Large scale migrations ­ What comes next? ­ Period of instability ­ Theories ­ Archaeological/historical evidence is not there ­ Invasion of the sea people ­ People who migrated (mostly warriors) ­ Widespread mediterranean destruction ­ Natural causes vs aggressive infighting ­ Economic collapse/ civilization halt ­ Greek tradition blames the Dorians ­ What follows: dark ages ­ Transitional period between bronze and iron ­ Collapse of civilization ­ Large scale trading halts ­ Writing ceased ­ Oral traditions continued ­ Little to no evidence ­ Less land cultivated, smaller settlements, agriculture declines ­ People become more mobile, more pastoral ­ Art regressed ­ Dispersion ­ Large scale migrations from Greece and other regions ­ Eastward across the Aegean ­ Likely dramatic population drop ­ Athens stays with a pretty high population ­ City centers abandoned ­ Expands greek works ­ Greek dialects ­ Doric ­ Ionic ­ Aeolic ­ Coming out of the dark ­ Metallurgical advanced ­ Iron ­ Agricultural bounces back ­ Geometric art ­ Cementing of Greek pagan religion ­ Return to kingship ­ Minus redistributive system ­ The Basileus “King/chief” ­ Social status/striations appearing ­ Was NOT a stagnant period in history ­ Dark but not stagnant ­ Culture did not die ­ Changed but continued ­ Return of writing ­ Adoption of Phoenician alphabet ­ Return of luxury goods ­ Means a market ­ Resurgence of trade/overseas contact ­ Population growth ­ Greek world is reviving itself ­ Especially from 900 BCE onwards ­ Homer and Poetry ­ Homeric epics performed by poets and passed down through  generation ­ One person or a team ­ Likely written down in 8th century ­ Milman Parry and Albert Lord ­ Poets used formulas and themes to recite and  recreate the stories during performances ­ Useful to history or just stories? ­ middle ­not a historical document, but does provide  insight ­ Crucial to Greeks ­ History, culture, identity ­ Living in later dark ages ­ Small settlements: villages essentially ­ Very few exceptions ­ Close knit; solidarity; cooperation ­ Necessary for the group survival ­ Government consisted of a chief maybe a council of elders ­ Demos and oikos ­ People of the group (Demos) ­ Household thinking/ family (oikos)


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