Week 2: the archaic ages & the dark ages
Week 2: the archaic ages & the dark ages Hist 2050
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor O'Toole on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 2050 at University of Toledo taught by Caitlin Ryan Jewell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Ancient Greece in History at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Week 2: the archaic age & the dark ages Early archaic age Power vacuum coming out of the Dark ages Ethnos (small tribal groups) Archaic age sees the culmination of various social/political tensions and developments that had taken root in the dark ages The polis Independent and autonomous Led to increased sense of regionalism and identity Organized on and around the idea of citizenship For all indigenous free inhabitants Citizens not all equal Consisted of a city center and the outlying countryside Patron god/goddess The city state Much more than just physical borders/boundaries Community life The good of the whole Tight knit The basic and essential unit through which social and political life developed Allowed there to be a political life Fostered intense local allegiances Provided a medium for order and stability Recognised that they are Hellenes over all Classes of the polis Social classes Really applied only to citizen men Upper aristocratic class, a middle landowning class, and a lower impoverished class Sharply stratified along class lines Not an egalitarian society Aristoi: Hoi Agathoi “The good” Claimed descent from Homeric heroes and men of greek myths Class solidarity and preservation of power/prestige = crucial Hereditary control of the land and positions of power based on birth and wealth Controlled most political positions Laid claim to a majority of good lands Attempted an even distribution of power and offices Why the polis? Synoecism voluntary or forced Efficient way of organizing tribes Natural progression defense , stability, security, and order Boom in population and economy after the dark ages Gave momentum to change Continuance of dark age trends Demand may have been made for more equitable treatment Aristocrats spin to advantage? Hoplite revolution Wellarmored helmet , breastplate/body armor, greaves/shin guards Armed with a round shield (hoplon), a long spear, and a short sword Male citizen, but not every male Had to buy own equipment, so it was restricted to those who could afford it Essentially aristocrats and well off farmers and craftsmen Became most efficient way to fight Phalanx and battle Hoplites fought in the phalanx formation Lined up shoulder to shoulder, shield to shield, with rows repeating behind them Success depends on every man holding his position Battle was quick; often not to many casualties, but was difficult and terrifying The polis and hoplite army Military equivalent of the ideology of “community” Unit over the individual Displaced the Homeric warrior who fought for his own glory with one who fought for his polis All hoplites were essentially equal on the field; all were necessary Gave the nonelite hoplites a certain degree of power within the state Affected both social and political life in the polis Dark Ages The fall of the mycenaeans Everything collapses What happened? What can we see? Fires; destruction Destabilization; lack of infrastructure Large scale migrations What comes next? Period of instability Theories Archaeological/historical evidence is not there Invasion of the sea people People who migrated (mostly warriors) Widespread mediterranean destruction Natural causes vs aggressive infighting Economic collapse/ civilization halt Greek tradition blames the Dorians What follows: dark ages Transitional period between bronze and iron Collapse of civilization Large scale trading halts Writing ceased Oral traditions continued Little to no evidence Less land cultivated, smaller settlements, agriculture declines People become more mobile, more pastoral Art regressed Dispersion Large scale migrations from Greece and other regions Eastward across the Aegean Likely dramatic population drop Athens stays with a pretty high population City centers abandoned Expands greek works Greek dialects Doric Ionic Aeolic Coming out of the dark Metallurgical advanced Iron Agricultural bounces back Geometric art Cementing of Greek pagan religion Return to kingship Minus redistributive system The Basileus “King/chief” Social status/striations appearing Was NOT a stagnant period in history Dark but not stagnant Culture did not die Changed but continued Return of writing Adoption of Phoenician alphabet Return of luxury goods Means a market Resurgence of trade/overseas contact Population growth Greek world is reviving itself Especially from 900 BCE onwards Homer and Poetry Homeric epics performed by poets and passed down through generation One person or a team Likely written down in 8th century Milman Parry and Albert Lord Poets used formulas and themes to recite and recreate the stories during performances Useful to history or just stories? middle not a historical document, but does provide insight Crucial to Greeks History, culture, identity Living in later dark ages Small settlements: villages essentially Very few exceptions Close knit; solidarity; cooperation Necessary for the group survival Government consisted of a chief maybe a council of elders Demos and oikos People of the group (Demos) Household thinking/ family (oikos)
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