Historical and Contemporary Views
Historical and Contemporary Views PSYC 3014
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3014 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. John Richey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Historical and Contemporary Views The rise of clinical science is nonlinear A slow convergence on a verifiable set of facts A search for causes: Supernatural explanations Early theorizing Earliest explanation o Focused on establishing causal relations between psychopathology and the natural world Demonic possession o Cause of illness: body is temporarily occupied by an evil spirit o Treatment: the evil must be ‘cast out’ of the inhabited soul Exorcism o Most religions have some form of exorcism Trepanation o Cutting holes in the skull to allow the Demon to escape Hippocrates: 460 BCE- 370BCE Balance of bodily humors was the source of illness (including mental illness) o Black bile o Yellow bile o Blood o Phlegm Shifted the hypothesized “cause” of psychopathology from the natural world to the individual Plato: 424 BCE- 348BCE Individual difference o Intra-individual variation in personality, risk, etc. o “No two persons are born exactly alike; but each differs from the other in natural endowments” Chinese philosophy also emphasized the importance of balance of competing internal forces in mental disorders Avicenna (Ibn Sina) 980-1037 Islamic philosopher and physician “The Canon of Medicine” Early and accurate descriptions of schizophrenia, depression, mania 7 rules for judging the effectiveness of medications o “The drug must be tested on two contrary conditions. If it is effective on both, we cannot judge which condition benefited directly from the drug.” Robert Burton o 1621 o “The Anatomy of Melancholy” Phrenology o A theory of individual differences o Personality variation is attributed to the size of particular brain regions Asylums o Essentially prisons o Patients often physically restrained Institutionalization Was the primary ‘treatment’ for most psychiatric disorders o Depression o Bipolar disorder o Schizophrenia Eugenics: -Practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population -By sterilizing the mentally ill Reform Phillippe Pinel (1745- 1826) st o 1 psychiatrist to “unshackle” patients Dorothea Dix (1802- 1887) o Staunch critic of cruel/neglectful practices toward the mentally ill o Founded over 30 hospitals for the treatment of mental illness Reformation of Clinical Practice “Mental Hygiene” Movement Early Classification o 1952 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) All disorders thought to be a product of environment Described most disorders as “reactions” o Example: “Schizophrenic Reaction” 1968 DSM-II 1980 DSM-III Major difference in what came before it Marks the beginning of a “modern” approach to classification Was a radical departure from previous versions o Atheoretical Purely descriptions o No assumption of etiology No claims of what caused the disorder
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