Modern Am. History Week 4
Modern Am. History Week 4 HIST 2060-3002
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CHEM 111 003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Thomas on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2060-3002 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Childers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Modern American History in History at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
9/11/16 The West in 1870 West and East Coasts connected by Transcontinental Railroad (1869) The Big Two of the Big Four: Leland Stanford (Central Pacific Railroad) Collis Porter Huntington (Central Pacific Railroad)*** Financiers, Risk Takers, Crony Capitalists Cooperation, Coercion U.S. Government approaches dealings with Native Americans from a biased perspective, promising fair treatment and progressive benefits Negotiations in the Trans-Mississippi West mirror earlier American behaviors 1) Promises of protection 2) Recognition of sovereignty 3) Trade benefits Negotiations must succeed across a large territory historically controlled by competing tribes who do not share the same goals or interests The Indian Wars 1860: War against Cheyenne (Colorado) Sand Creek Massacre 1868: Fort Laramie Treaty granted Black Hills to the Sioux (South Dakota) Discovery of gold brought prospectors 1876: Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho aligned to protect the Black Hills, wiping out Custer’s regiment in June of 187, before being defeated by the army 1874-1875: Red River War 1876-1885: Apache- American War- Geronimo (Mescalero- Chiricahua tribe, Bedonkohe band) A Different Strategy: The Nez Perce -Tribes like the Nez Perce, who tried to cooperate with whites, were betrayed -Promised Oregon, the Nez Perce were sent to a disease-ridden land in Kansas -After violence broke out over mistreatment of his people, Chief Joseph led his people on a 4 month long, 1400 mild retreat to Canada The Nez Perce~ -Defeated in Northern Montana, 30 miles short of Canadian border -Nez Perce surrendered and were forced onto a reservation in the state of Washington 9/13/16 The Open Range -The destruction of buffalo opened the path for the western cattle industry -Post-Civil War, entrepreneurs like Joseph McCoy began driving longhorn cattle from Texas to the Kansas railroad towns for shipment east The Long Drives LOW PAY -Cowboys earned around $30 a month (at best) HARD LIFE -Sunup to sundown (night shifts protecting cattle) -Climate -Poor diet often led to disease -Long drives to grazing and trailheads -Disability and Death Frontier Violence and Range Wars Personal violence commonplace -Horse theft and cattle rustling rose rapidly (capital crimes locally adjudicated- “frontier justice”) - Henry Fonda, “The Oxbow Incident, 1943” -1870s: Range was turned violent when farmers, sheep ranchers, and cattle ranchers battled over the same land Mid-1800s: cattle business went bust -overstocking -bad weather Land Enclosures~ European system- solidifies in the late 1870s and early 1880s -The division and titling of lands across the west stabilizes the cattle industry -Make cattle ranch ownership attractive to investors (eastern, foreign) -Extensions of railroad lines shortens drives, reduces conflicts -Closed-ranges, livestock management techniques Knights of Labor -National labor Union- first in the east in 1869 -Fraternal organization -No industry limits Can include Cowboys… Cowboy Unions and Cowboy Strikes Harsh lifestyle of Open range cowboy’s one issue Work conditions, safety, Etc. Cowboy strike of 1883 • Not union affiliated • Against new forms of ranches- investor corporations, enclosed • Key issue- pay- Cash wages or maverick cattle? Farming Communities Easterners struggled to adapt to the plains, with few trees and limited water Improvements in technology and transportation were vital to the growth of the West Populating the Plains Homestead Act gave 160 acres to western land to household heads who held the property for five years and improved it • This sparked the largest migration in U.S. history; only 10 percent of all farmers got their start under its terms • Most bought land outright from states • Railroad and land speculators profited from selling off cheaply bought or free land
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