Psychology 222, Psychology of Personality
Psychology 222, Psychology of Personality Psyc 222 (Psychology of Personality)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Kennedy on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 222 (Psychology of Personality) at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Hittner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Psychology 222—Psychology of Personality Gordon Allport (18971967) Conscious Motivation o We are in the driver’s seat o Similar to Adler in this way Advocated applying psychology to social issues o Ex: prejudice, international relations The Psychology of Prejudice by Gordon Allport Personality: they dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine one’s unique adjustments to one’s environment. o We adjust what parts of our personality we show depending on the situation o Biological and nonbiological aspects to it o Helps us adjust to different demands in the environment Traits—dispositional theorist o Represent both the structure and dynamics of personality o Trait descriptors: single word descriptive adjectives that describe people’s personality o Traits are hypothetical constructs They aren’t tangible or physical o Common traits: shaped by cultural norms and values Ex: cooperative vs. competitive societies o Personal dispositions (individual traits) Cardinal disposition: an extreme; allpervasive characteristics Ex: extreme desire for power Not very healthy Central dispositions: highly characteristic of the individual Top 510 most central characteristics Secondary dispositions: situational specific; large in number Ex: your central characteristic is relaxed, calm, and unaggressive, but that doesn’t mean it is impossible for you to be aggressive They come and go as the situation demands Allport’s debate with Walter Mischel regarding the crosssituational consistency with behavior o Mischel: you take your traits with you wherever you go, so a person should be more consistent across situations o Allport: yes, you carry your traits with you, but you have different categories of traits and one is secondary dispositions that allow you to behave differently to adapt to new situations We would only be 100% consistent if the situations were EXACTLY the same Attitudes and intentions are also important o Traits and attitudes give a more accurate feel for your personality. (package deal) The Proprium o Consists of the various selffunctions/egofunctions/propriet functions o Proprium facilitates and motivates behavior o Our selfunderstanding, etc. affects our personality Ex: someone with high selfesteem has a very different personality than people with low selfesteem o There are different kinds of selffunctions that are rooted in infancy then change over time Not innate; develops over time—Emphasis is on forward movement o Proprium Milestones (not a stage theory… just observation) B3 years: sense of bodily self, continuing selfidentity, selfesteem, and pride Ex: oh hey, I have an arm and a hand is attached to it and I can stick my fingers and fist in my mouth! 46 years: Extension of self, more refined selfimage More obvious likes and dislikes, preferences Extended yourself to your possessions—“that’s mine” 612 years: greater selfawareness, coping by means of reason and thought Adolescence: intentions, longrange purposes, distant goals Called “propriate strivings” Ex: what do you want to be when you grow up? Functional Autonomy An activity or behavior may become and end or goal in itself, despite the fact it was originally engaged in for some other reason o Ex: hunting, fishing, planting vegetable gardens, crochet o Independent of innate need or biological motive o We may simply “like” engaging in the behavior/ activity o 2 Categories of Functional Autonomy Propriate functional autonomy: acquired interests, selfenhancement, values clarification Helps contribute to your sense of self Perseverative functional autonomy: addictions; circular mechanisms (reinforcement; conditioning cues) Circular mechanisms: nerve development, reflexive activity that infants engage in o Ex: thumb sucking, rooting Gathering Information o Nomothetic approach: general classes or categories; large sample size (large N’s) Common approach in psychology Ex: have survey, recruit 500 girls and 500 boys to take questionnaire, evaluate findings, conclude: overall mean value for girls _____, for boys _____, correlations _____, etc. Make general statements about groups, not individual o Idiographic approach: examine the uniqueness of each individual (single N) Case studies o Allport favored the idiographic approach If you want to understand someone’s personality, you need to study them, not a hundred people Letters from Jenny: Jenny Masterson wrote a collection of letters to a newly married couple; they focused on letters to further examine Jenny’s personality Single subject research designs (N of 1 design) o Consistent with Allport’s recommendation that psychologists conduct more idiographic research Allport didn’t create idiographic research, he just supported it o ABAB reversal design A single subject design is used to analyze the effectiveness of an intervention, program, etc. Effectiveness of a single independent variable 4 phases apply the intervention/ treatment then take it away Reversal verifies a functional relationship by offering replication Common to plot things out (Ex: in powerpoint) o Can’t do this design if the taking away of an intervention would cause harm Dr. Hittner’s Single Subject Research—using behavior modification and imipramine to treat aggressive behavior in an autistic man o S: a 24 year old guy—engages in SIB (selfinjurious behavior), tantrumus outbursts o Sequence before outburst Pacing, ringing hands, talking to himself, become tearful, look anxious, act out o First address depression o DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative (appropriate) behavior) schedule Reinforce him every 30 minutes when engaging in appropriate behavior FI 30 schedule Don’t praise him if off task (extinction) Other components: social skills and communication training o Treatment approach Dependent variables Frequency of tantrums at the ICF (Intermediate Care Facility) Frequency of selfinjurious behavior at the ICF Frequency of aggressive behaviors at the ICF o Baseline (preintervention) data 35 days tantrums, 35 days aggressive episodes, 14 days SIB o Imipramine administration S began with 25mgs of imipramine daily Titrated upward over a 4month period o Postintervention Collected from 7/5 to 11/30 A simple interrupted time series design: monitoring behavior over time, interrupt behavior with treatment, see what happens o Results: the average number of episodes of SIB went down although there were still some peaks and valleys Mood, depression, agitation can have an effect on selfinjurious behavior and tantrums Henry Murray (18931988) Personality: the study of the person Motivational concepts (needs, achievement) o Our needs and achievement motives are motivating behavior Ph.D in biochemistry o Met Carl Jung in the late 1920’s and became interested in psychology Structure of Personality o Proceeding: a behavioral sequence May be external (interacting with people) or internal (daydreaming, problem solving) You can learn a lot about someone by observing their interactions o Serial: an intermittent succession of proceedings A relatively long functional unity Ex: friendship, marriage, career o Serial program: a series of subgoals, linked together over time, that culminates in the completion of a larger desired goal Ex: complete high school, complete college, complete medical school, become a physician Needs: a force in the brain that motivates us to transform an existing, unsatisfying state into a satisfying state o Ex: if you’re hungry, you have a need to eat; when you eat you have transformed the unsatisfying hunger to the satisfying fullness o Satisfying a need is always accompanied by an emotion. Murray’s list of 20 needs o Autonomy: we need to do our own thing and be independent o Achievement o Affiliation o Order o Play o (behaviorally inhibited) Harm avoidance o Nurturance: to give help o Succorance: to seek help o Infavoidance: to guard against embarrassment o Etc.
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