Week 9-10 Notes HY 101
Week 9-10 Notes HY 101 HY 101
Popular in Western Civilization
Popular in History
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney James on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of South Alabama taught by Leanne good in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at University of South Alabama.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Western Civilization Pt 4 Hellenistic Society/Culture: Replace old elites > more open system, more opportunity Greek culture in cities: citizen participation, Greek art, learning, religious festivals Difference- no longer city-states with local parties= all centralized around a king Hellenistic Art Nike =goddess of victory Great Altar at Pergamum Philosophy Cynics-Diogenes-attachment to things of this world is the source of evil and unhappiness Epicureans-Epicurus- focus on pleasure to escape pain or life - Live simply, stay away from politics, concentrate on friendships Stoics-Zeno- Happiness in accepting your role in the universe; both pleasure and pain to be excited Sciences Egypt: Euclid (ca.300 BCE) Wrote standard textbook of geometry used until 20 centuryh Eratosthenes, calculated the circumference used until 20 century Syracuse (Sicily): Archimedes - Eureka! =I have found it! Calculated pi Archimedes screw The catapult “the claw” PTOLEMAIC EGYPT Alexandria- intellectual center of the Mediterranean The Museum- shrine to the Muses of art, music, and literature - The library-half a million papyrus scrolls - Scholars subsidized by the King Rome- “City-State to World Empire” Western Civilization Carthaginians Greek colonies Etruscans Carthaginians- from 6 BCE Phoenicians (“Punic”) Multiethnic empire Mainly mercenary army Profit sharing Etruscan- Social Structure Etruscan religion Magna Garcia Emphasis on Ritual Neopolis (“New city”) = Naples Magic Transition to Etruscan and Rome - Alphabet - Greek Gods - Art and Architecture - Literature Myths and Legends of Early Rome Romulus and Remus and the She-Wolf Early Rome- social organization th 8 c. BCE- Alban League Gens; gentes- clans- family groups claiming descent from one ancestor (>” patricians”) Plebeians (plebs)- families not organized into Jentes The Roman Family Gens Familia *paterfamilias = head of household Patra potestes History of Rome Monarchy (753- 509 BCE) Roman Republic (509-27 BCE) Roman Empire (27 BCE-476 BCE) Monarchy- political system King (rex) Senate- assembly of elders (senex) Village council (curia) Clientage- free men rely on more powerful patrons for protection, in exchange for political support Mid-7 century BCE- Etruscans absorb Latium Etruscan engineers drain marshes, fortify Capitoline hill Rome becomes trading center and military strategic point Foundation of the Republic Etruscan deadline 509 BCE: Romans expel last king- Tarquin the Proud Rome is Res publica- public property Lucius Junius Brutus Roman Republic Is not a direct democracy Two consuls – serve one-year term Veto- “I forbid” Praetors- administer justice Quaestors- control finances Consuls Powers of the King Military Command- imperium (power to command, impose the death penalty) Judicial Power- fasces Lictors (body guards)- 24 for the kings; 12 each for consul Roman Senate Monarchy: - Heads of Families Advisors to king Republic: - Advisors to Officials - Foreign Policy - Finance Roman Assembly (legislative branch) Male citizen Elect consuls and Praetors Pass laws Make war Cursus honorum = “cause of honors”- political career- rise through the offices Dictator Extraordinary and temporary Emergency (foreign invasion) Full royal power free of all veto Censors Determine taxes Take census of citizens and property Decide membership of senate *STRUGGLE OF THE ORFERS* Plebeians left out of new system > strike Found their own system 494 BCE- elect magistrates called tribunes Powers of the Tribune----- does not have Lictors (bodyguards) Power to convene assembly Power of intercession Power of veto Sacrosanct- sacred, untouchable Illegal to harm him; can face death penalty 471 BCE- Create their own council with laws - Binding on all plebs Ca, 450 BCE- The Twelve Tables 445 BCE- law permitting marriage between plebeians and patricians 367 BCE plebeians can hold consulship - Magistrates and priesthoods open to plebeians 287 BCE- decision of plebeian assembly become binding Roman Expansion in Italy Roman Expansion in Italy Economical Needs (Land and Food) Political drive for land Military Discipline 396 BCE- Etruscan city of Veii 330’s BCE- defeat other Italian cities, permit to become citizens or allies 265 BCE- King Pyrrhus of Epirus - “Pyrrhic victory” Rome vs. Carthage Punic First Punic War (264- 241 BCE) - Acquire Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia Second Punic War (218- 202 BCE) - Hamilcar Barca and Panema Tebia-218 BCE Lake Trasimene- 217 BCE Battle of Cannae-216 BCE Rome survives for 3 reasons - Allies stay loyal - Solidarity- put aside class difference - Hannibal logistical support from Carthage Fabius “the Delayer” Publius Cornelius Scipio - Zama, south of Carthage 202 BCE - “Scipio Africanus” Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) – when Carthage is completely destroyed Carthage defenda est – Cato------ (Carthage must be destroyed) The Effects of the Punic Wars Rise of the Senate Ecological decimation of Italy Peasants oppressed by war taxes Inflation from tribute Rise of latifunda- large plantations - Peasants leave for cities > urban poor Rome and Hellenistic World Macedonian Wars (215-168 BCE) - Frist Wars- allies of Hannibal - Second Wars- warring Greek states asked to intercede - Third War- Macedon revolts- Corinth destroyed By 146 BCE, Rome in control of both west and east Mediterranean Encounter with Hellenistic Culture Victors bring home loot: statues and paintings Ideas: literature, art, philosophy, rhetoric Livius Andronicus translates Greek dramas into Latin (ca.240 BCE) “corruption” of the Roman virtues Graecia capta ferum victorem cept (Horace) --- culture victory Consequences of imperial expansion Roman civilization changed by conquests - Richer- affects social equality - Exposure to more sophisticated civilization - Must administer large territory - Magistrates in foreign provinces no longer understand senatorial oversight Social and Economic Crisis of the 2 ndcentury BCE Problems - Conscript Army - Urban Proletarized--- Urban poor - Italian allies 200-100 BCE> increasing will strife will destroy Republic Revolts Provinces: 120-63 BCE- King Mittridates-uprising spread to Greece Allies:91-81 BCB (Social War) ----- War of the Allies Slaves:136-132 Sicily REVOLTS 74-71BCE- Spartacus (Gladiators Revolt) *The Gracchi: [Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus] (REMEMBER: Tiberius and Gracchus were two brother who tried to bring reform to Rome and restore small farms to the poor) POPULARES- political leaders appealing to the masses 133 BCE tribune Tiberius tries to pass land reform - Lex Sempronia Agraria 123 BCE Gaius becomes tribune - Alliance with Equestrians (equites) vs. optimates - Grain Law - Supported citizenship for the Italians Similarities to Pericles and Cleisthenes Gaius Marias Jugurithe Wars “novus homo”- new man Eliminated property requirement for army Promised soldiers land Oath of loyalty to commander--------- Problem: loyalty to one man; not Rome Elected consul 7x Social War (91-89 BCE) - socii = allies - Rome grants citizenships to all Italians 89 BCE Everyone can earn citizenship Problem: 35 voting tribes and bot everyone’s vote is being counted Corfinium Cornelius Sulla- consul Sulla- optimates vs Marius- populares st Sulla 1 march on Rome- soldier’s loyalty to commander Civil war > 2 nd march on Rome Sulla- dictator 82-91 BCE - proscriptions: make somebody an enemy, where your name is put on this list where anyone can kill you and take your property - doubles Senate to 600 - Reduces authority of tribune - takes jury from equites Sulla retires Cataline conspiracy- 63 BCE o Marcus Tilliuvus Cicero ------------ really believes in the Republic TRIUMVIRATE - trium-vin (three man) - alliance 60 BCE 3 military commanders: - Pompey - Crassus - Julius Caesar FIRST TRIUMVIRATE 59 BCE Caesar elected consul- Bib ulus 58 BCE commander of Cisalpine Gaul Gallic wars 53 BCE Crassus died in Syria; 52 Pompey sol conduct 49 BCE Senate relieved Caesar of his command Crosses the Rubican “ Alea iacta est” Civil War- Pompey vs. Caesar Caesar meets Cleopatra VII Cleopatra and Caesarian Julius Caesar Increased number of magistrates Enlarges senate to 900 Founded colonies with veterans 44 BCE consul with general Marcus Antonius Declared himself dictator for life The Ides of March March 15, 44 BCE Assassinated by Cassius and Brutus Et tu, Brutue? Kai su, teknon; = You to, my child? The Roman Republic 509- 44 BCE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus, and Caesar’s adopted son Octavian Destroy Caesars enemies- Proscriptions 42 BCE: defeat Cassius and Brutus at Philippi in Macedonia Antony- east, Lepidus- Africa, Octavian- Italy and the west Octavian 18, no experience, poor health Gaius Octavius > G. Julius Caesar Octavinatus Lepidus forced out; Antony dependent on Cleopatra 31 BCE * Battle of Actium* The Triumph of Octavian – January 11, 29 BCE The Age of Augustus (the reveredon) - Settlement of 27 BCE------- End of the Republican - “Restoration of the Republic” - (*Remember: The Republic has always benefited the elites, never the normal people) The Triumph of Octavian- January 11, 29 BCE The Age of Augustus Settlement of 27 BC “Restoration of the Republic” Titles - Augustus - Princeps- “leading man” = Principate - Imperator (“greater imperium”) = holder of the emperor Powers of a tribune but greater Augustan Reform: Senate-1000 to 600 Equites-military officers, administrators; no longer tax collection or judicial matters Army - sent veternas to colonies - paid pensions from his own wealth Established personal military corps- praetorian guard - within the city when they’re not at war Whenever there is a bad emperor, they assassinate him, or raise one that’s been neglected Augustus Patron of the People - found Rome a city of Brick and left it a city of marble - creates a fire department - Creates a police force Augustus as Priest (Pontifex Maximus) Religion Revival - Ara Pacis- Altar of Peace The Achievements of Augustus Revival of Rome Social program Economic change Military affairs Administration of empire *Peace* Roman Empire After Augustus Tiberius (14-37 BCE) - General- didn’t have Augustus attitude Caligula (37-41 CE) - allowed the head of the - Tiberius nephew Praetorian guard, Sejanus, to help rule - Gaius (real name) - sick and erratic - first emperor to be killed by Praetorian guards Claudius and Nero Imperial guard raised Claudius to be a puppet emperor but he’s not stupid Rules successfully - extends port Succeeded by Nero Nero is assassinated also Blamed for big fire in Rome, but he wasn’t to blame House of Gold - Colossus Not interested in the state, he wants to be an artist; Rome is disgusted He has his slave kill him, because he’s deemed a public enemy 60-61 Revolt in Britain Iceni- Boudicca Vespasian and the Jewish War 69-79 CE Establishes the Flavian Dynasty Destroys second Temple of Jerusalem, because the Jews are revolting Masada Flavius Josephus Mass suicide because they did not want to submit to Rome Diaspora people being moved from their homes - Ex: Philippine Diaspora or African Diaspora Flavian Dynasty----*First dynasty established after Augustus Vespasian (69-79) Titus (79-81) Domitian (81-96) 79 CE-Pompeii - Villa de Papyri Colosseum- named the Flavian amphitheater Aqueducts Roman springs Hypocaust or hot springs Via Apia - one of the earliest roads leading into Rome
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