New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Reason, Passion, & Cognition, Week 5 Notes

by: Monica Chang

Reason, Passion, & Cognition, Week 5 Notes 88-120

Marketplace > Carnegie Mellon University > Social & Decision Sciences > 88-120 > Reason Passion Cognition Week 5 Notes
Monica Chang

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

- definition and components of emotion - dual process models in decision-making
Reason, Passion, and Cognition
Julie Downs
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Reason, Passion, and Cognition

Popular in Social & Decision Sciences

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Chang on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 88-120 at Carnegie Mellon University taught by Julie Downs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Reason, Passion, and Cognition in Social & Decision Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University.


Reviews for Reason, Passion, & Cognition, Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/01/16
LECTURE 8: WHAT IS EMOTION? Overview of emotion (definition and components): - Multifaceted process that unfolds over time (i.e. there are many aspects to emotion and some occur instantly while others take longer – e.g. nervous system response happens instantly or takes awhile for us to recover) - Appraisal triggers emotions (evaluations of reactions that cause certain reactions) - Expressed in multiple channels that have a complex interaction. Theses are not emotions in themselves but are parts of emotion. Channels include: o Subjective feeling o Bodily response o Expression o Cognitive changes o Action tendencies - Appraisal o How we evaluate a situation affects our emotional response o Components of appraisal  Pleasantness (good/bad)  Control (by whom/what?)  Certainty (predictions of future?)  Anticipated effort - Example w/ components of emotion: o Situation - seeing a bear in woods o Pre-emotional appraisal – urgent threat to well-being  Pleasantness – unpleasant  Control – situational control  Certainty – high uncertainty  Anticipated effort - moderate o Subjective feeling – fear o Bodily response – fight or flight response (i.e. release cortisol – stress hormone) o Expression – fearful face, scream o Cognitive changes – increased caution to bear o Action tendency – run away or stop in tracks - Subjective feelings o Subjective feelings are the root of evaluations of everything we experience o Advertisers get us to have emotional responses o Value is determined by emotional value o Not everyone feels emotion the same way o Without emotions we can become paralyzed, severing ability to feel emotional is very detrimental not only in an emotional sense - Bodily response o Endocrine system (glands that secrete hormones: chemical messengers within body that affect the functions of brain and body)  Oxytocin  Female reproduction  Reduces brain activity connected to fear  Increases trust, empathy  Cortisol  Stress hormone, released particularly when we feel lack of control  Gives us energy (brings blood sugar up)  Eases memory  Suppresses immune system  Testosterone  Linked with masculine qualities and sexual development  Connected to aggression (ex. More testosterone given to monkeys increases aggression to other monkeys, although it is selective), testosterone≠aggression  More testosterone and higher risk-taking are correlated o Autonomic nervous system  Sympathetic o Facilitates fight or flight, response to stressor o Increases blood flow to muscles and lungs o Increases heartbeat o Dilates pupils  Parasympathetic o Facilitates “rest and digest” o Increases blood flow to digestive system o Decreases heartbeat o Limits pupils o Coordinated Responses  Fight or Flight  Reaction to stressor  Includes greater heart rate, greater lung function, greater blood flow, repressed digestion, relaxed bladder, reflex acceleration  Orienting  Reaction to unexpected environmental change (not aversive)  Includes greater attention, attention towards stimulus, slower heart rate, greater muscle tension  Startle reflex  Response to unexpected, sudden stimulus (more impactful than what causes orienting response) e.g. crashing sound  Includes closing of eyes, muscle tension in neck, contraction of arm/leg muscles, exaggerated for those w/ PTSD - Expression o Allows other people to tell what we’re feeling o Bodily expression, faces, posture, voices - Cognitive/Informational processing changes o Emotions can cause people to  Rely more/less on heuristics  Adjust more/less from anchors  Change perception of risk - Action tendencies o Ex. Angry people increased tendency to fight, sad people more likely to shop How components fit together (since our definition of emotion has so many parts): - Emotion theories: o Lay intuition  Says feelings are most important component o James-Lange Theory  Emotions are feelings of bodily state changes (somatic feeling theory)  Perception of event/situation, body reacts instantly, then you know how to feel (bodily change leading to emotion)  Flaws: No one-to-one correlation, not many bodily states, lots of emotions o Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory  In a study, some are injected with epinephrine, study gives evidence that emotion includes the bodily state, depends on perception of event  Another study, two different kinds of bridges, at the end subjects are asked to do a survey and asked to call with any questions, more people on scary bridge called  How we think of an event and experience a bodily state can come together to create an emotion  Situation may be same, but depends on context  This theory has flaws o Appraisal Theories  Richard Lazarus  Appraisal theory  Perception of event, appraisals, {subjective feeling, bodily response, expression, cognitive changes, action tendency}  Solves some Two Factor Theory The problem of variety o What is sufficient for us to call an emotion? o We don’t consider hunger an emotion b/c there is no expression o So maybe expression is essential part of emotion…but what about jealousy, there is not necessarily a facial expression for it o Therefore, theories of emotion are nuanced, so we are left with a multi-part definition of emotion o We can study how emotion affects decision making Key Ideas - Emotions triggered by appraisal of situation - Emotions give value to our experiences - Bodily response is facilitated by physiological systems o Endocrine system - Oxytocin, cortisol, testosterone o Nervous system - sympathetic and parasympathetic systems - Fitting together emotional components (theories) o William James and Karl Lange – says bodily response determines emotions we feel o Schachter-Singer – Two-factor Theory says bodily response is part of emotion o Appraisal theories – outline how we interpret situations, determined multifaceted experience of emotion LECTURE 9: DUAL PROCESS MODELS OF DECISION MAKING Two systems of decision-making: - Evolutionary metaphor: “fish brain”  “amphibian brain”  “lizard brain”  “human brain” - System 1 - Intuition system (shared by humans and other animals) o Associative  Priming causes response facilitation for associated ideas and response inhibition for other ideas  Ex1. People who were shown a picture of a snake were quicker to recognize fearful face than a happy face b/c the picture primes the idea of fear. o Fast o Parallel processing  Lots of info processed simultaneously o Effortless  Often color, size, similarity, novelty, affective valence (good/bad)  Language o Automatic  E.g. The Stroop Task (saying the color of a word when its ink matches its name is automatic) o Slow-learning o Emotional  Intuition based on affect  Example using affect heuristic: More people are willing to pay for life insurance from death from any reason versus death from a terrorism incident, even though - System 2 - Reasoning system (believed to be unique to humans) o Deductive  Syllogism  Given: o I will either wear a coat or sweater today o I will not wear a coat today  Using system 2, you can conclude: o I will wear a sweater today o Slow o Serial processing  Information processed sequentially, one at a time  Computer use sequential processing o Effortful  Based on subjective difficulty and not objective difficulty  E.g. Playing chess o Controlled  Stroop Task (it’s harder to say the color of the word when the ink is a different color than the name of the color printed) o Flexible  Expertise  You can learn more easily o Neutral  E.g. Syllogism:  Given: o People who attend school in PA aren’t intelligent o CMU is in PA  Conclusion: o People at CMU aren’t intelligent Is system 1 stupid, and system 2 smart? - System 1 - learns slowly, but capable b/c can treat complex things intuitively - System 2 - learns quickly, careful thought, but can lead to mistakes and bad decisions How the systems combine: - Selective design o Persuasion  Elaboration likelihood model  People want to have correct attitudes, but this requires thinking  Thinking requires effort, which depends on: o Motivation o Ability  When motivation and ability are high, attitude change occurs through system 2 (central route) o Careful examination of message o Makes + and – cognitive responses to message o Attitude change may occur based on the above  When motivation and ability are low, attitude change occurs through system 1 (peripheral route) o Not careful examination of message, low effort o Minimal cognitive responses, uses “cues” (authority, appeal, mood, etc.) o Attitude change may happen based on cues  Just one system contributes to outcome (i.e. either system 1 or system 2 is being used, not both) - Competitive design o Difference from selective design is not in the output o Both systems are ready and produce something inside, but the outcome is only from one system & other system is still doing something o E.g. Language processing (“bank” example from lecture 9) - Consolidative design o Both system 1 and system 2 contribute to output o Relative amounts of both system 1 (associations, emotions, etc.) and system 2 (considered arguments, etc.) contribute to judgment - Corrective design o Most associated with decision science and dual processes approach o Combination of two inputs o E.g. The Linda problem  First, system 1 tells us Linda is a bank teller and feminist  System 2 realizes that it’s not possible, and corrects the judgment o Implication: prejudice  Stereotyping comes from system 1  Racial prejudice was very explicit, but now more people outwardly oppose it b/c of system 2 processing  Prejudice researchers are interested in measuring system 1 processing  Reaction times o Shorter reaction times is evidence of system 1 associations o Longer reaction times is evidence that system 2 comes in to correct system 1 associations o E.g. Tool or weapon test when shown a picture of a black or white person (from lecture 9) o Reaction time correlates w/ behavior, but can be a very noisy measurement  Implicit-Association Test (1990s to today) Key ideas: - Two systems make up decision making processes: o System 1 – fast, intuitive, uses more emotion, o System 2 – slow, rational, better at learning - Dual processing models: how system 1 and system 2 interact: o There are many models, and there is no one “correct” model o Models help us understand how the two systems are used in decision-making


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.