Week 5 General Psych lecture notes
Week 5 General Psych lecture notes PSY2012-16Fall 0002
University of Central Florida
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 Lecture notes week 4 Dr. Alisha Janowsky Nature, Nurture, and Behavior Behavior genetics Evolutionary Psychology Environmental influences Nature and Nurture interact together to yield a particular individual Transactional model of development A child’s genetic nature is going to impact how the experience their environment Ex: lets say there is a child who is particularly extroverted – meaning their environment is going to treat them a particular way. Behav ioral Genetics - “Extent to which genetic and environmental differences among people are responsible for differences in their traits” *How much diversity we see in the environment and how much of that can be linked to genetics -‐ Genotype (what you are genetically made up of – the complete instructions) – -‐Genes (DNA segments that form templates for production for proteins-‐ who you are going to be) -‐ -‐Chromosomes (23 pairs) -‐DNA (deoxcyribose Nucleic Acid) Most common way to study this is through twin and adoption research One of the things to look for is shared environmental influences -‐Parenting style -‐Socioeconomic style -‐Kind of neighborhood you’re raised in Non shared environmental factor – Ex: between siblings who have different experiences growing up or perhaps think they are their parents favorite because their parents respond to them differently Twin Studies Identical Twins Develop from a single zygote (fertilized egg) that splits in two, creating two genetic replicas This means identical twins have to be of the same gender Fraternal Twins: Develop from separate zygotes Genetically no closer than brother/sisters but share fetal environment Methods of Study - Familial Association-‐ Shared traits and disorders among family members Greater similarity among more closely related family members Twin-‐ Differences between identical and fraternal twins Concordance rates are greater in identical twins than fraternal twins Adoption-‐ Similarity between adoptees and their biological and adopted parents Concordance rates (correlation rates) are higher with biological parents (i.e. genetic traits) – religion, values, all of those types of things are likely to come from your adopted parents Temperament - A starting point for traits you see later in life – how emotionally excitable the infant is Chess and Thomas – three different types of temperament 1. Easy Child – (the majority of children) Pretty positive mood, quickly develop a schedule 2. Difficult children – React very negatively to new stimulants, don’t have a regular routine, cry frequently 3. Slow to warm children -‐ Low activity level, somewhat negative, shows low adaptability, displays low intensity mood Gene -environmental Interaction - 3 basic types of effects 1. Passive Effects – parents provide the rearing environment A child’s phenotype (what the look like) – are influenced both by their genotype (genetically what they get) and their environment 2. Evocative Effects-‐ From the individual eliciting responses from others 3. Active Effects-‐ One’s genotype effects the type of environment one chooses to experience You now get to choose what social looks like for you Evolutionary Psychology - Study of evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection (Darwin) Name of the game with evolution is reproduction – Genes are naturally selected based on the idea of adaptability So we consider what behaviors and what parts of the mind might have been naturally selected over time Mutations – where the process begins Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides source of all genetic diversity Natural Selection -‐ Environmental pressure -‐-‐à Competition for resources -‐à selection of fittest phenotype among variety of phenotypes -‐à Reproductive success: genotype corresponding to fittest phenotype passed to next generation à frequency of genotype increases Example in class-‐ rating qualities men vs women look for in a life partner – typically men rank physical attractiveness higher than women and women prioritize earning capacity higher than men. Evolutionarily speaking – when psych looked at the idea of mating strategies it had to do with heredital interests – physically attractive women may have better reproductive capability. Women are much more invested because they have a nine month investment in this – so they want someone who will stick around and provide. Evidence – you can only make assumptions because you cant go back in time to test out this theory Men are more likely than women to . . . Engage in hit and run sex Perceive a warm response as a come-‐on Men tend to prefer youthful looking women Women tend to prefer more mature, dominant, affluent men The Environment: Peer influence What classes to take, maybe who to vote for… Different over time Cultural Influence Individualist culture vs a collectivist culture (western vs eastern) Social Norms-‐ Standing for the pledge of allegiance, taking off shoes at the door Bathroom etiquette, personal space Child rearing – how we choose to raise children Development : The nature of development Biological processes, cognitive processes Social skills, learning Socioemotional processes perceptions of gender, our relationships, what motivates us, our personalities Developmental Issues: Continuity and discontinuity Debate about the extent to which development involves gradual change Stage theories Involve transitory times of growth from infancy Stability and Change Debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life. How much we personally change through life/ how much we are actually able to change Prenatal Development: 1. Germinal Period – fertilization through 2 week nd Zygote – fertilized egg Develops into an embryo 2. Embryonic stage – 2 weeks through the second month Organogenesis Sex differentiation Amnian, ambylical cord 3.Fetal Period – from the 9 week until birth th 1 trimester – until the end of the 3 month rd bones, muscles, sex organs develop 2 trimester – 4 through the 6 month th thumb sucking and sensory organ development age of viability rd th th 3 trimester – 7 through the 9 month Rapid physical growth and brain development Infant states – the nervous system is functioning so you start to see patterns of waking and sleeping Maternal Prenatal Influence Mom’s habits and diet impact the baby If mother is malnourished the baby will be malnourished Fetal alcohol syndrome Zika Virus Environment surrounding birth: Drugs given during delivery – can have an impact Delivery practice Social environment after delivery Hazards: Anoxia – oxygen shortage can lead to mental retardation and cerebral palsy Delivery problems Newborns: Rooting Reflex – tendency to open mouth and search for nipple when touched on the cheek Preferences – human voices and faces Face-‐like images Smell and sound of mother Newborn maturation Maturation – biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior They are born with pretty much all the neurons that they will have Infantile amnesia – we consciously recall little before age 4 when we are adults Childhood Cognitive Development: Piaget’s theory – there are discrete changes but with continuous development – first to come up with a theory – did a scientific study with his own children. Looking at the idea of how we think, learn, grow, and communicate as we develop throughout childhood He created a schema A schema is an organized way of interacting with objects in the world Ex: sports Subcategories for sports you play with a ball Kicking a ball Hitting a ball Throwing a ball Adaptation-‐ adjust cognitive structures to environmental demands When we come into contact with something and we are not sure what category to put it in – we use assimilation When an old schema is applied to new objects Accomodation – When an old schema is changed to fit a new object A good example of this is Bambi – when he meets his friend thumper he is learning what a flower is and what a butterfly is and it is all about assimilation Piaget’s stages Typical age range Description of stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Experience the world Object permanence – once through senses and actions something leaves your site – looking, touching, doesn’t mean that it doesn’t mouthing exist anymore. -‐imitation – monkey see-‐ monkey do – if you clap your hands, they will clap their hands About 2 to 6 years Preoperational Pretend Play Representing different Egocentrism – they lack objects with words and perspective outside of their images but lacking logical own. So if you ask them to reasoning move because you can’t see the tv, they don’t understand how you can’t see it because they can. Theory of mind – the band aid test. If you show a kid a box of bandaids full of crayons and ask what they think other kids will see, they will say, “crayons” because if they know its crayons, everyone must know crayons are in the box Language Development Piaget’s conservation task About 7 to 11 years old Concrete operational – Conservational logical thinking about mathematical concrete events – grasping transformations analogies and performing arithmetical operations About 12 years old to Formal operational Abstract logic adulthood Abstract reasoning A lot of people argue that this isn’t quite right Adolescent Cognitive Development – Adolescent egocentrism – 2 types Imaginary audience – confusing you own thoughts with those of a hypothetical audience – everyone is so convinced that they are the actor in their own show on tv. But the reality is that everyone is just as invested in themselves as you are in yourself – so no ones really paying attention to you Example – if you trip in the hallway and think everyone is watching you and laughing at you when no one even noticed Personal Fable – tendency to think you and your own thoughts are unique When your parents used to say to you, “I know this is tough but I understand what you’re going through, when I was your age…” and you think its impossible for them to understand how you are feeling because you think you are the only one in the world whose ever felt this way. Kohlberg At what level do we start to reason about what is moral and what is not Pre-‐conventional: before 9 years old, wrong is equated with punishment Conventional: 13 years old social conformity and rules There are laws in place for a reason, you have to follow the rules Post-‐conventional: some 16 year old and adults – respect law but realize it is flawed and should be changed Piaget’s theories in order: KNOW FOR EXAM Sensory motor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational Morality: S ocial Development in Children: Attachment – long term feeling of closeness between infant and primary care giver -‐ most of the time this means we are talking about baby and mom Impart based on biology and impart based on social needs If mom is the source of food then that biologically makes sense Harlow’s study-‐ He used monkeys to study how much the attachment is based on biology and how much of it is emotional Infant monkeys preferred a cloth doll that offered no food over wire doll that offered food. Independent variable is which “mother” they are fed on Contact comfort more than biological need BUT monkeys with surrogate mothers didn’t know how to interact with other monkeys So body contact and comfort are very important Kind of ground breaking when it happened because it proved that attachment is much more than biology We see some of the same behaviors in human children. If a child is scared they want their parents – and to be held and picked up Strange situation task – Ainsworth Places kids under some stress by introducing them to a stranger and taking their mother away. The stranger can’t console the kid 4 different types of attachment: Secure: Mother is used as secure base from which to explore – this is how it goes if it’s the ideal situation. The child knows that the parent is always there and always watching as a secure base to return to if the child gets scared Anxious/ Ambivalent: Response toward mom fluctuates between happiness and anger Very clingy child – they become incredibly upset when mom leaves but when she returns it’s a mix of feelings – they want to be with her but they might not trust her and they’re kind of annoyed. Avoidant: ignores mom for the most part Don’t really react whether the mom stays or goes. They knew she was going to leave or aren’t surprised that she left so when she returns they’re not overly enthused because they expect her to leave again Disorganized: pays no attention to mom on separation or reunion This child is all over the place. Synchronous relationship with mom and child is the ideal – where the kid doesn’t come over looking for comfort and the mom waves it off and says, “no, not now.” Or perhaps the kid is playing well on their own and the mom comes over and says, “okay time for cuddles now,” and interrupts that-‐ they are not in synch. Parenting Styles: 3 types (looking at quality of relationships that are developing) Authoritative Parents: parents who have boundaries and rules and they discuss that with you and explain why its important to obey those rules. But they are warm and responding – outcomes of children with authoritative parents are usually pretty good – they have self control and self reliance and do well in school etc. Authoritarian parents – firm control – the kids become very socially responsible and law abiding but its not necessarily a good outcome and they are more dependent on their parents Permissive/ laissez-‐faire: negative outcomes – really laid back parents who submit to their kids desires– parents who are more your friend than your parent…kids are not very disciplined, disrespectful Its “oh that dress looks amazing!” instead of “your missing half of your dress..” Helicopter parents – sort of a new phenomenon /new category – parents who are way overly involved. Social Development in Adolescence Erikson’s stages of development Identity vs Role Confusion Trust vs distrust – is mom there for you as an infant? Do you build trust with people and the world or do you leave that stage not trusting the world? The outcome is going to color what happens as you go through life Identity achievement – Have gone through a crisis period and committed to an occupation and ideology These are people who have gone through some sort of crisis period in their life and have committed to an outcome. Think of registering to vote for example. You’re trying to figure out which party to vote for so maybe you go online and do some research, maybe you talk to mom and dad, maybe you look at what are the big events coming up. People who are in an identity achievement phase have done all the research and really thought it through. Identity Diffusion-‐ Lack commitment and haven’t decided upon an occupation and uninterested in ideological matters These are people who lack the commitment part of their crisis – maybe these people haven’t registered to vote at all. Identity Moratorium-‐ Still in crisis, attempting some compromise among parental wishes, society’s demands and their own capabilities If you ask them what they want to do with their life they will say, “eh I don’t know.” These people are actively in a crisis and trying to commit to something but they just can’t make it work. Trying to appease everyone in their life. If mom is a democrat and dad is a republican maybe they say they are independent because they want to make everyone happy Identity Foreclosure-‐ Made a commitment without experiencing a crisis (i.e. becoming what others had intended for them) Mom and dad are republicans? I guess I’ll be a republican. Motivation: A need/desire that energizes and directs our behavior Motivational concepts 1. Hunger 2. Sex 3. Need to belong 4. Work Motivational approaches 1. Evolutionary: role of instincts in motivation a. Instinct-‐ unlearned complex behavior rigidly patterned throughout a species 2. Drive Reduction Theory: need creates drive – physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy that need. a. Need – deprivation that creates a drive b. Drive – aroused state due to physiological need c. Homeostasis – regulation of any aspect of the body chemistry – a state where we are comfortable – our bodies are constantly trying to maintain a state of homeostasis Need (for food and water) à Drive (hunger and thirst) à Drive-‐ reducing behaviors (eating and drinking) 3. Optimum Arousal Theory: a. Low Vs High arousal and effects on performance i. Example: maybe there is only one exam for the entire semester and you are super stressed out about it and maybe because of that you don’t perform as well on the exam ii. People reach their personal happy medium at different states b. Sensation seekers i. These people need tons of arousal to make them happy 4. Cognitive Approach: the idea here is that we as humans are very rational and aware of what motivates us. So we can think about what makes us engage in different behaviors for the long term and for the short term a. Intrinsic Motivation – internal factors – taking a class because you find it very interesting and you want to learn – usually we put forth more effort with this and put forth a better quality of work. b. Extrinsic factors –how you work to get paid. There is a reward and an external outcome that you want or taking a class because you think it is an easy A
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