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Chemistry Notes Week 1

by: Rheanna Gimple

Chemistry Notes Week 1 CHEM 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > CHEM 113 > Chemistry Notes Week 1
Rheanna Gimple

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Week one of Thermodynamics notes.
General Chemistry 2 (CHEM 113)
Staff, Chem
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry, Thermodynamics, week 1
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rheanna Gimple on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 113 at Colorado State University taught by Staff, Chem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 (CHEM 113) in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Thermodynamics Week 1:  Thermodynamics: science of energy transfer st  1 law of thermodynamics: energy is always conserved o total energy of the universe is constant ∆E total= 0  types of systems: o open system: has a free flow of matter and energy with surroundings o closed system: matter is contained in the system but Energy flows between system and surroundings o isolated system: energy and matter is completely contained in the system  nothing flows between system and surroundings  Spontaneous processes: reaction that occurs without outside intervention once started o Non-spontaneous processes need work put into the system to occur  If a reaction is spontaneous, the reverse reaction will always be non-spontaneous o Once a spontaneous reaction starts, no action is needed for it to complete o Energy and matter tend to be dispersed in spontaneous processes  Matter and energy often both spread out  Spontaneous endothermic process disperses matter while energy is constrained  i.e. ice melting  spontaneous exothermic process disperses energy while mater is constrained  i.e. ice solidifying o spontaneity dependent on both dispersals of energy and matter o spontaneity can depend on conditions  i.e. melting ice depends on temperature  Entropy: measure of how dispersed energy of a system is S = k ln(W) for very simple systems o Boltzmann constant (k) = 1.3806*10 -23 o W = number of possible microstates  Microstates: possible positions and places a molecule can be in o Matter dispersal generally means an increase in entropy  Types of molecular motion o Translational o Rotational o Vibrational  Bending and stretching within a molecule o All three types can occur in liquid and gas states  Transitional motion occurs less in liquid  Gas has highest entropy  2ndlaw of thermodynamics: entropy of the universe increases for every spontaneous process ∆S universe= ∆S system + ∆S surroundings 0 rd  3 law of thermodynamics: entropy of pure crystalline substances at absolute 0 (0K) is 0, S = 0


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