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Neurology, The Nervous System, and Atrophy

by: Tay-La Notetaker

Neurology, The Nervous System, and Atrophy HES 1823 004

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Health and Exercise Science > HES 1823 004 > Neurology The Nervous System and Atrophy
Tay-La Notetaker
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About this Document

Week 6 notes include neurology , the function of the nervous system and the subdivisions, and the affects and everything else involving Sarcopenia.
Scientific Principles of Health and Disease
Xin Ye
Class Notes
Sarcopenia, atrophy, neurons, CNS, PNS, muscle, brain
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tay-La Notetaker on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HES 1823 004 at University of Oklahoma taught by Xin Ye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Scientific Principles of Health and Disease in Health and Exercise Science at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Tay­La Jackson Professor Jennifer Russell Health and Disease Week 6 (9/26­9/28)  Neurology Anatomy and Physiology AND The Nervous System  Neurons: are the basic unit of the Nervous System and they have extreme  longevity and a high metabolic rate.   Structure of a Neuron o Cell Body: cell maintenance o Dendrites: receive and conduct impulses to the cell body. o Axon: the nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the cell  body and are covered in Schwann cells (these form the Myelin  Sheath along the axon.  The Myelin Sheath is a whitish, fatty, and segmented  substance on the axons of cells to insulate their fibers. The  gaps in the sheath are called “Nodes of Ranvier”  it speeds the rate of signal transmission o Synapse: the contact points between two neurons.  The gap between neurons where information transfer  takes place.  Two parts:  Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron containing  synaptic vesicles which carry neurotransmitter  molecules.  Neurotransmitter receptor region on membrane  of postsynaptic neuron.  They generate electrical signals that move from one part of the cell to  another. This causes communication of two cells by an axon (or other  parts of the cell) communicating with the dendrite of another cell.  There are 3 types of neurons: Sensory, Motor, and Interneuron.  Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers released by electrical signals that  pass those signals to other cells.   Serve as integrators because their output reflects the balance of inputs om  thousands of other neurons hat communicate with them.  The Nervous System controls internal environment (with the endocrine  system), voluntary control of movements, spinal cord reflexes, and the  assimilation of experiences necessary for memory and leaning.      Broken in 2  :rts o Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain and Spinal Cord  Comprised of neurons o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Comprised of neurons outside of the CNS  There are 4 large opening in the brain known as ventricles that are filled with  cerebrospinal fluid to cushion the brain and which are constantly replaced.      Brain Subdivisions: Forebrain: composed of the Cerebrum and the Diencephalon. o Largest component of forebrain is Cerebrum (83% of total mass)  Covered by cerebral cortex. (area that “makes humans  human”)     Contains several functional areas: motor,  somatosensory, auditory, visual, and association  Primary Sensory areas. These control language, memory, and  learning.  4 lobes: Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal  Underneath is the central core of the forebrain, the  diencephalon.      Primary Sensory Cortices:      Somatosensory: Located in Parietal Lobe and receives  impulses on pain, temperature, touch, and vibration.      Visual: Located in Occipital Lobe and receives  information about vision.      Auditory: Located in Temporal Lobe and receives  information about sound.      Language Centers:     Broca’s Area  Important for generating words and damage to  this area means people can understand words  but can’t generate them.     Wernicke’s Area  Important for hearing and understanding words  and damage to this area causes people to add  inappropriate words or phrases to their speech.     Association Areas  Located adjacent to the primary cortex and  integrates information related to a single sense.      Motor Association Areas integrates  information related to movement.      Multimodal Association Areas integrate  information from all senses and decide how  to respond. Then signal is sent to the  Primary Motor Cortex.      Diencephalon: composed of  Thalamus  Involved in arousal and attention  Sensory/motor input goes through thalamus before  cortex.  Hypothalamus  Major endocrine center  Controls homeostasis Brainstem: composed of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. o 2.5% of total mass o Responsible for basic mechanisms of life  Sleep and wakefulness  Cardiovascular and respiratory functions  Regulation of posture and balance o Relays information from periphery to brain and vice versa. o Contains “reticular formation” Cerebellum  o ~11% of total mass o Coordinates ongoing movements and learns new ones o Receives input from structures of body related to movements.       Peripheral Nervous Syste  consists of neurons outside of the CNS.   Sensor  Division has afferent fibers that transmit impulses from  receptors to CNS. (Ex. Feeling Cold)   Motor  Division has efferent fibers that transmit impulses from CNS to  effector organs. (Ex. Muscle Contraction)  Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic Division: Fight or Flight  Parasympathetic Division: Rest and Digest     Atrophy and Sarcopenia o Muscle Atrophy is the wasting away or loss of muscle.  Conditions:  1 .     Wasting­ unintentional loss of weight both fat and fat free  typically caused by inadequate diet.  2 .     Cachexia­ loss of weight, muscle, and appetite from someone who isn’t trying to lose weight. Cn reverse nutritionally but is likely  caused by inflammatory cytokines.  3. Sarcopenia  (Greek for “poverty of Flesh”)­ intrinsic age­related process  that occurs in absence of disease and can be accelerated by inactivity and poor nutrition. o Age related disease that includes loss of strength, function,  and decline in quantity and quality of muscle mass. o # of muscle fibers will begin to decrease after the mid­20’s  and after 30, adults lose ~3­8% of their muscle mass per  decade.  o Motorneurons that control the skeletal muscles also begin  to decrease in number.  Prevalence: o Currently affects 20% of adults below the age of 70. o >50% of adults 80+ years.  Consequences: o  Decreased resting expenditure (Lower metabolism) o Higher risk of disabilities which means loss of balance which  can lead to more falls. o Higher mortality rate.  There are two models for Sarcopenia: o Traditional Model  Sarcopenia is a slow, insidious process o Catabolic Rest Model (Bed Rest)  Inactivity­induced muscle loss mass affects lower body  and is most rapid in the first days and week of  inactivity.     Assessing Muscle in the Body:       Muscle Composition  : Fiber type, size, and number. o Muscle Quality: Ratio of strength to mass in upper and lower  extremities.     Body Composition:  how much muscle mass is in the body.  Sarcopenia can be assessed with a DEXA Assessment.  Aging Muscle 1. Loss in fiber size and number 2. More pronounced Type II fiber atrophy and relative  increase in percent of type I but decrease in type II cross­ sectional area and fiber number. 3. Loss of motor units a. Motor unit remodeling may occur which leads to slower and less force production and not as efficient with  control of your movements. 4. Collectively leads to a loss of strength and power.      Factors in Sarcopenia 1.   Decrease of sex hormones (Testosterone) 2.   Decrease levels of anabolic hormones 3.   Increase cytokine production 4.   Accumulation of reactive oxygen species  Iron accumulation in muscles causing oxidative stress. 5.   Physical Inactivity  “Use it or lose it” 6.   Malnutrition 7.   Smoking      Protein Synthesis and Muscle Loss 1. Muscle mass is determined by the rates of the muscle protein  synthesis and the muscle protein degradation.  MPS=MPD: no change in mass  MPS<MPD: loss of muscle  MPS>MPD: gain muscle (hypertrophy)  Smoking impairs MPS and increases the expression of genes associated with  impaired muscular maintenance.  You can prevent Sarcopenia by being physically active, dieting, and  hormone replacement.


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