Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread
Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread NURB 340
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Forbeck on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURB 340 at University of Indianapolis taught by Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology in NURSING at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
NURB 340: Pathophysiology Exam 2 Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread Cancer o Defined: Disease where abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade all of the others o Second leading cause of death o 1/3 of deaths is from nutrition problems o Disease that is predominantly of aging o Cells have to go through multiple mutations to turn into cancer o Most common is skin cancer o Prostate is most common in males o Breast is most common in female Growth o A neoplasm or tumor is a cellular growth that is occurring and doesn’t respond to normal body controls o Excessive growth deprives other cells of nutrients o The characteristics of each tumor depend on the specific type of cell from which the tumor arises. This results in a unique appearance and growth pattern o These tumors can be: Benign Non-cancerous Reproduce at a fast rate These are encapsulated You can die from these tumors if you have a tumor in your brain if it grows it can push on certain places in your body that can kill you Malignant Cancerous Made up of undifferented cells Can spread into surrounding tissue (metastasize) Metastasize Spread into surrounding tissues IF they invade blood they can travel o Angiogenesis- blood vessels to supply tumor CAUTION o Uncontrolled cell growth o C- change in bowel or bladder habits o A- A sore that doesn’t heal o U- unusual bleeding or discharge o T- thickening or a lump o I- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing o O- obvious changes in wart or mole o N- Nagging cough or hoarseness Division (cell proliferation) o Normal cell and you get a mutation and then they divide again so you get a second and third and eventually they turn into malignant cells o DNA can mutate spontaneously or because it has been exposed to carcinogens o Rapid rates of mitosis can increase the risk of errors occurring in the chromosomes, or enzymes, or cell components. o Mutant cells may change function as well as lose control of mitosis o Neoplastic cells- have disorganized growth and increase in number o Anaplasia- when cells lose their differentiation o Pleomorphic- vary in size and shape Example is malignant cells Cell differentiation o Start as a cell, but depending on what their affected by (antibodies, antigens, growth factors) they turn into different types of cells (muscle cells, nerve cells) Cancer can invade here Characteristics of Cancer Cells o Cell surface changes Benign are even size and are encapsulated Malignant are a mess and all over the place The cell membranes have antigens on them and change during this process When cells become necrotic they die Secrete enzymes collogenics causes break down of the protein around the cell When they break down it causes a portal and always the tumor to spread o Proto-oncogenes and Oncogenes Proto are normal They regulate normal cell proliferation Oncogenes Express mutated form They are independent They don’t listen to regulatory system Help cells continue to grow Can be activated by gene mutations Oncogenes turn into cancerous cells Either going to over stimulate it (tumor) or not at all (tumor) Tumor Suppressor Genes They are normal and suppress tumors Stop division of cells when they become damaged and prevent mutations Also known as anti-oncogenes Tumor suppressors have to be shut down for the person to develop cancer You need a copy of the gene from each parent to get the cancer and they both have to be inactivated YOU NEED TWO Rb Genes Typical tumor suppressor gene “retinoblastoma” Associated with lung and breast cancer Mutations in certain genes can result in cell growth Mutations can occur in maternal Tumor protein (TP53) Guardian of the genome Tumor suppressor Found in genes that affect lung, breast, and colon cancer Function: Monitors signals within intracellular that relates to stress in your body and will activate care taker gene which we want to work. Virus protection in normal cells Absent in cancer cells Cancer turns this gene off o MYC genes Also known as myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog When this gene is on it allows tumors to grow When deactivated it stops the growth of tumor It is like a switch, you just have to turn it off o Tumor cell marker These are things that they have identified help us Causes of Cancer o 5% of all cancers are strongly hereditary o Can be autosomal recessive, x linked, or autosomal dominate o Have early onset and see 2 or more family members in each generation with same cancer o Gene-environment interactions Smoking UV from sun Alcohol Diet (lack of fruit and veggies) Diabetes Occupational hazards like working in a coal mine o Oncogenic Viruses Human papilloma virus (HPV) Epstein Barr virus (EBV) Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus Human herpes virus B Human T- lymph tropic virus 1 They can only reproduce when they enter a living cell 15% of all cancers are linked to the virus 5% genetic o Carcinogenesis Process by which normal cells turn into cancer cells Multifactorial Some cancers have well established risk factors Stages of Cancer Development o Stage 0- (most curable) Cancer is in the situ (it is in place) It has not spread or metastasized o Stage 1 Small cancer or tumor that has not grown deep into tissues Hasn’t spread to lymph nodes Called early stage cancer o Stage 2/3 Indicate larger cancer or tumor that has grown more deeply into nearby tissue In lymph nodes but no other parts of body o Stage 4 Cancer has spread to other organs May be caused by metastatic cancer This is advance cancer o Tumor staging system Based on T for tumor; N for nodes; M for metastasis Primary tumor number differs on size Tumor Staging T-0 is free of tumor T-1 found a lesion less than2 cm T-2 lesion is 2-5 cm T-3 skin or chest wall invasion Nodes N-0 is no axillary lymph nodes involved N-1 is mobile nodes involved N-2 fixed nodes involved Metastasize M-0 none M-1 demonstrable metastasis M-2 Suspected or possible Initiation-promotion-progression theory of carcinogenesis o Initiation Exposure of cells to a carcinogenic agent that causes them to vulnerable to cancer transformation o Promotion Allows for the prolific of cells triggered by multiple growth factors and chemicals Can reverse if they remove the cause o Progression Manifests with tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, autonomous growth tendencies (do their own thing and are not controlled by the systems of the body) Cancer related Symptoms o Fatigue First symptom but cancer gets missed because we don’t go to the doctor just because we are tired o Cachexia Wasting away o Anemia Decrease in RBC o Leukopenia Decrease WBC o Thrombocytopenia Decrease platelets o Infection o Pancytopenia has anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia o
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