New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread

by: Kelsey Forbeck

Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread NURB 340

Marketplace > University of Indianapolis > NURSING > NURB 340 > Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread
Kelsey Forbeck

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Over the biology of cancer and tumor spread lecture
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Pathophysiology

Popular in NURSING

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Forbeck on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURB 340 at University of Indianapolis taught by Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology in NURSING at University of Indianapolis.


Reviews for Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/01/16
NURB 340: Pathophysiology Exam 2 Biology of Cancer and Tumor Spread  Cancer o Defined: Disease where abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade all of the others o Second leading cause of death o 1/3 of deaths is from nutrition problems o Disease that is predominantly of aging o Cells have to go through multiple mutations to turn into cancer o Most common is skin cancer o Prostate is most common in males o Breast is most common in female  Growth o A neoplasm or tumor is a cellular growth that is occurring and doesn’t respond to normal body controls o Excessive growth deprives other cells of nutrients o The characteristics of each tumor depend on the specific type of cell from which the tumor arises. This results in a unique appearance and growth pattern o These tumors can be:  Benign  Non-cancerous  Reproduce at a fast rate  These are encapsulated  You can die from these tumors if you have a tumor in your brain if it grows it can push on certain places in your body that can kill you  Malignant  Cancerous  Made up of undifferented cells  Can spread into surrounding tissue (metastasize)  Metastasize  Spread into surrounding tissues  IF they invade blood they can travel o Angiogenesis- blood vessels to supply tumor  CAUTION o Uncontrolled cell growth o C- change in bowel or bladder habits o A- A sore that doesn’t heal o U- unusual bleeding or discharge o T- thickening or a lump o I- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing o O- obvious changes in wart or mole o N- Nagging cough or hoarseness  Division (cell proliferation) o Normal cell and you get a mutation and then they divide again so you get a second and third and eventually they turn into malignant cells o DNA can mutate spontaneously or because it has been exposed to carcinogens o Rapid rates of mitosis can increase the risk of errors occurring in the chromosomes, or enzymes, or cell components. o Mutant cells may change function as well as lose control of mitosis o Neoplastic cells- have disorganized growth and increase in number o Anaplasia- when cells lose their differentiation o Pleomorphic- vary in size and shape  Example is malignant cells  Cell differentiation o Start as a cell, but depending on what their affected by (antibodies, antigens, growth factors) they turn into different types of cells (muscle cells, nerve cells) Cancer can invade here  Characteristics of Cancer Cells o Cell surface changes  Benign are even size and are encapsulated  Malignant are a mess and all over the place  The cell membranes have antigens on them and change during this process  When cells become necrotic they die  Secrete enzymes collogenics causes break down of the protein around the cell  When they break down it causes a portal and always the tumor to spread o Proto-oncogenes and Oncogenes  Proto are normal  They regulate normal cell proliferation  Oncogenes  Express mutated form  They are independent  They don’t listen to regulatory system  Help cells continue to grow  Can be activated by gene mutations  Oncogenes turn into cancerous cells  Either going to over stimulate it (tumor) or not at all (tumor)  Tumor Suppressor Genes  They are normal and suppress tumors  Stop division of cells when they become damaged and prevent mutations  Also known as anti-oncogenes  Tumor suppressors have to be shut down for the person to develop cancer  You need a copy of the gene from each parent to get the cancer and they both have to be inactivated  YOU NEED TWO  Rb Genes  Typical tumor suppressor gene “retinoblastoma”  Associated with lung and breast cancer  Mutations in certain genes can result in cell growth  Mutations can occur in maternal  Tumor protein (TP53)  Guardian of the genome  Tumor suppressor  Found in genes that affect lung, breast, and colon cancer  Function: Monitors signals within intracellular that relates to stress in your body and will activate care taker gene which we want to work.  Virus protection in normal cells  Absent in cancer cells  Cancer turns this gene off o MYC genes  Also known as myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog  When this gene is on it allows tumors to grow  When deactivated it stops the growth of tumor  It is like a switch, you just have to turn it off o Tumor cell marker  These are things that they have identified help us  Causes of Cancer o 5% of all cancers are strongly hereditary o Can be autosomal recessive, x linked, or autosomal dominate o Have early onset and see 2 or more family members in each generation with same cancer o Gene-environment interactions  Smoking  UV from sun  Alcohol  Diet (lack of fruit and veggies)  Diabetes  Occupational hazards like working in a coal mine o Oncogenic Viruses  Human papilloma virus (HPV)  Epstein Barr virus (EBV)  Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus  Human herpes virus B  Human T- lymph tropic virus 1  They can only reproduce when they enter a living cell  15% of all cancers are linked to the virus  5% genetic o Carcinogenesis  Process by which normal cells turn into cancer cells  Multifactorial  Some cancers have well established risk factors  Stages of Cancer Development o Stage 0- (most curable)  Cancer is in the situ (it is in place)  It has not spread or metastasized o Stage 1  Small cancer or tumor that has not grown deep into tissues  Hasn’t spread to lymph nodes  Called early stage cancer o Stage 2/3  Indicate larger cancer or tumor that has grown more deeply into nearby tissue  In lymph nodes but no other parts of body o Stage 4  Cancer has spread to other organs  May be caused by metastatic cancer  This is advance cancer o Tumor staging system  Based on T for tumor; N for nodes; M for metastasis  Primary tumor number differs on size  Tumor Staging  T-0 is free of tumor  T-1 found a lesion less than2 cm  T-2 lesion is 2-5 cm  T-3 skin or chest wall invasion  Nodes  N-0 is no axillary lymph nodes involved  N-1 is mobile nodes involved  N-2 fixed nodes involved  Metastasize  M-0 none  M-1 demonstrable metastasis  M-2 Suspected or possible  Initiation-promotion-progression theory of carcinogenesis o Initiation  Exposure of cells to a carcinogenic agent that causes them to vulnerable to cancer transformation o Promotion  Allows for the prolific of cells triggered by multiple growth factors and chemicals  Can reverse if they remove the cause o Progression  Manifests with tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, autonomous growth tendencies (do their own thing and are not controlled by the systems of the body)  Cancer related Symptoms o Fatigue  First symptom but cancer gets missed because we don’t go to the doctor just because we are tired o Cachexia  Wasting away o Anemia  Decrease in RBC o Leukopenia  Decrease WBC o Thrombocytopenia  Decrease platelets o Infection o Pancytopenia has anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia o


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.