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Ch 1-2, pg. 1-35, Lec up to 9/21

by: Emma McKee

Ch 1-2, pg. 1-35, Lec up to 9/21 ENGR 220

Marketplace > Drexel University > MSE > ENGR 220 > Ch 1 2 pg 1 35 Lec up to 9 21
Emma McKee

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About this Document

These are my opening notes for the course. The included information is my notes, referenced from the course textbook as well as from class lecture notes. This upload contains full content from ...
Fundamentals of Materials
Dr. Richard Knight
Class Notes
materials, Science, Introduction




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma McKee on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGR 220 at Drexel University taught by Dr. Richard Knight in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Materials in MSE at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapters 1-2, pg. 1-35, Lecture notes through 9/21/16 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering 1.2 Classification of Materials 1.3 Advanced Materials Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 2.1 Introduction / Fundamental Concepts 2.2 Electronic Structure of Atoms 2.3 Periodic Table 2.4 Bonding Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering ➔ Early civilizations were designated by the level of their materials development - Stone Age (2.5 mil B.C), Bronze Age (3500 B.C), Iron Age (1000 B.C) ➔​ Materials Science - Examining relationships between the structures and properties of materials; developing or synthesizing new materials ➔ M ​ aterials Engineering - Designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties; creating new products or systems using existing materials; developing techniques for processing materials ➔ 6 ways to classify the properties of solid materials: ◆ Mechanical - deformation because of an applied force (ex: stiffness, strength, toughness) ◆ Electrical - electrical field (ex: electrical conductivity) ◆ Thermal - (ex: heat capacity, thermal conductivity) ◆ Magnetic - magnetic field ◆ Optical - electromagnetic or light radiation (ex: index of refraction and reflexivity) ◆ Deteriorative - chemical reactivity ➔ Materials Paradigm ◆ Processing - how we make a material ◆ Structure (depends on how the material was processed) - how the material is organized Chapters 1-2, pg. 1-35, Lecture notes through 9/21/16 ◆ Properties - how the material behaves ◆ Performance (depends on the material’s properties) - does it do what it was designed to do? ➔ Selecting the best material from thousands of options ➔ Criteria for choosing the best material: ◆ In-service conditions - outlining the properties we’re looking for ◆ Deterioration - will my material deteriorate over time during use? ◆ Economics - think about cost 1.2 Classification of Materials ➔ 3 main classifications of solid materials: ​ ◆ Metals (and metal alloys) ● Metallic bonding ● One or more metallic elements, usually plus nonmetallic elements in small amounts ● Atoms are arranged orderly and most dense ● Relatively stiff and strong, yet ductile (ability to stretch), resistant to fracture (these are all mechanical properties) ● Structural applications -​ -​ ● Large #s of non-localized e​ (e​ not bound to particular atoms) → good conductors of electricity and heat, opaque, often shiny ● Sometimes magnetic ◆ Ceramics ● Ionic bonding (refractory - resistant to heat) ● Compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements ​ ● Usually oxides, nitrides, carbides, or t ​ raditional ceramics - cement, glass, porcelain, clay materials ● Less dense than metals, more dense than polymers and composites, which are both at about the same density ● Relatively stiff and strong (comparable to metals), very hard, not ductile (very brittle, cannot be stretched), easily fractured, glassy, elastic ● Insulative to heat and electricity (low conductivities - around same as polymers) ● More resistant to temp and extreme environments than metals and polymers ● Varying optical characteristics Chapters 1-2, pg. 1-35, Lecture notes through 9/21/16 ◆ Polymers ​ ◆ Composites - engineered combos of the above 1.3 Advanced Materials ➔ Materials used in high-technology applications ➔ Normally expensive; think electrical equipment ➔ Semiconductors ◆ Electrical properties between electrical conductors (metals, metal alloys) and insulators (ceramics, polymers) ◆ Sensitive to impurities; think about doping a semiconductor with an impurity ➔ Biomaterials ◆ Compatible with the human body ➔ Smart Materials ◆ Sense and adapt to changes in the environment, mimicking living organisms ◆ Usually a combo of smart and traditional materials ​ ◆ Sensor + ​actuator (responsive function) ◆ Materials used for actuators: ​ ➔ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ➔ ​ ​ ➔ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​​ ​ ​ ➔ ➔ ​ ◆ ​ ​ ​ Chapters 1-2, pg. 1-35, Lecture notes through 9/21/16 Thanks for checking it out! Comments, suggestions? Need anything else? Email me at ​ Information is referenced from the below listed book, as well as class lecture notes, with absolutely no intention of copyright infringement. Students with access to this study guide are enrolled in a course which requires purchase of the textbook. This section specifically references pages 1 through 35. The before pages can all be taken down promptly upon request. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction 9E William D. Callister, Jr., David G. Rethwisch Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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