Psychology of Aggression Notes Chapter 3
Psychology of Aggression Notes Chapter 3 PSYC 231 - 02
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 231 - 02 at Montclair State University taught by Eman Warraich-Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aggression in Psychology (PSYC) at Montclair State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapter 3: Development of Aggression and Individual Differences Introduction Questions When does aggressive behavior first appear and what forms does it take in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood? How stable are early life manifestations of aggressive behavior as children get older? Does the development of aggressive behavior follow a pattern of escalation? Are milder forms of aggression necessarily going to be followed by more severe aggressive behaviors? What are emotional and cognitive antecedents of aggressive behavior? What is the role of the social environment (parents, peers, and neighborhoods) in the formation and persistence of aggressive behavior patterns? Emergence and manifestations of aggression in childhood and adolescence A. At about 3 months of age, a child can recognize anger in the facial expressions of adults 1. Children learn to express anger very young 2. Children are able to replicate this facial expression before the age of 6 months B. Children lack the ability to see the consequences of their actions 1. According to the established definition of aggression, a person must possess the intention to cause harm to classify as aggression a. A child does not realize they will cause harm to another when they do something, so they cannot intentionally harm someone else, so therefore, their actions are not considered “aggressive” b. Regardless, it is still possible to identify certain behavioral indicators such as: Refusing to let go of toys Pulling Hair Hitting others Biting Having angry moods Having temper tantrums C. Observing children’s use of physical force when they were between 5 and 8 months old could predict the amount of physical force when the children were older, between 11 and 15 months D. Between the ages of 2 and 3 years old is when a child typically starts intentionally using physical force 1. The use of physical force typically decreases once a child’s verbal skills begin to emerge – this is when they develop a better understanding of social relationships E. Early school years is when gender differences become more significant 1. Boys show higher levels of physical aggression a. Represents externalizing problems, such as attention deficits b. Typically continues into adolescence 2. Girls show higher levels of indirect and relational aggression a. Represents internalizing problems, such as depression and anxiety b. Typically replace aggression with non-aggressive conflict resolution 3. This is often attributed to hormones Stability of aggressive behavior and patterns of change A. The stability of aggression is similar to the stability of intelligence over time B. Several longitudinal studies done to prove the stability of aggression 1. A study covering the age range from 6-15 years found childhood aggression predicted violent delinquency in adolescent males, but a significant connection was not found for females 2. A study with a sample of males aged 12 to 24 years showed that a group of highly aggressive 12 year olds showed continuous amounts of aggression over time peaking at age 18 3. A study that covered a 30-year period found significant links between peer-nominated aggression in childhood to a self-reported aggression towards children and spouses in adulthood a. A significant link was found in this study between high aggression and low education levels 4. Childhood aggression is not a problem that the child will usually grow out of; according to a majority of the studies, children can be expected to have increased levels of aggression as they get older, two distinct processes: a. Cumulative continuity: aggression is maintained because of its own consequences that accumulate over time (for example, highly aggressive children often experience academic failure) b. Interactional continuity: aggression is maintained by the responses it elicits in others (for example, a highly aggressive child may be rejected by certain peers, which will lead to that child to seek out peers that are also aggressive, creating an environment where aggression is acceptable among those peers) 5. Of course there are outliers, a highly aggressive child may not turn out to be a highly aggressive adult, and vice versa 6. A child will often demonstrate a decline in aggression when learning other conflict resolution methods, those who do not usually portray two type of escalation: a. Short-term escalation: rapid increase in violence in individuals who start becoming aggressive relatively late b. Long-term escalation: gradual increase in severity of aggressive behaviors 7. Two prototypes of antisocial behavior according to Moffitt a. Life-course persistent Originates in early childhood Early neurodevelopmental risk factors (cognitive deficits, hyperactivity) High-risk social environment (inadequate parenting, rejection by peers) Associated with violent crime in adulthood b. Adolescence-limited Emerges in puberty Psychological discomfort during maturity gap (being denied adult privileges) Desire for autonomy Imitation of antisocial peers Associated with non-violent delinquent offences in adulthood Trait anger and trait hostility A. Associated with higher aggression 1. Trait anger and hostility 2. Irritability 3. Emotional susceptibility 4. Rumination 5. Hostile attributional style 6. Narcissism B. Associated with lower aggression 1. Dissipation 2. Perspective taking 3. Self-control
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