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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1151K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Nilmi Fernando in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
CHAPTER 6: COMPOUNDS Two or more elements combined chemically in a fixed ratio IONIC COMPOUNDS: MAKE IONS OF ATOMS AND USE ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION v Positive ions: usually occur within all metals (solids) in the periodic table. Ø Metals are able to remove an electron from there outmost shells (valence electrons) Ø Ø ION SIZE DECREASES ACROSS THE TABLE, THEREFORE POSTIVIE ION SIZES ARE SMALLER THAN ATOMS v Negative ions: non-metals Ø Non Metals gain electrons, making the ion negative Ø Ø Repulsion is greater than attraction, so NEGATIVE IONS GET BIGGER (size wise) ACROSS THE TABLE. NEGATIVE IONS > ATOM (size wise) v Naming ionic compounds Ø Na+ = sodium Al 3+ = Aluminum Ø BUT à O 2- = oxide F- = fluoride Ø v Formulas: Ø v Qualities of ionic compounds: Ø Very high melting points Ø Crystalline 3d structures Ø Strong electrostatic attraction Ø Mostly solids @ room temperature v Some positive ions have variable charges : Ø Group 4A: Sn 2+, Sn 4+ ; Pb 2+, Pb 4+ Ø Group 5A: Bi 3+, Bi 5+ v v 2 v POLYATOMIC IONS: YOU MUST MEMORIZE THESE!!! Ø COVALENT COMPOUNDS (AKA MOLECULES) v Made by electron sharing between atoms (“bonding inside”) Ø v 3 Prefixes: mono, di, tri, tetra, etc.. Ø NUCLEAR ENERGY GENERATION v Nuclear fission: breaking the nucleus Ø v Nuclear fusion: combining nucleus (HIGHLY EXPENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE) Ø 4
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