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Week 4 Book Notes

by: Sophomore Notetaker

Week 4 Book Notes 100

Sophomore Notetaker
Wash U

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Chapter 7
Intro to Psychology
Rice, Duchek, Carpenter
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophomore Notetaker on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at Washington University in St. Louis taught by Rice, Duchek, Carpenter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at Washington University in St. Louis.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
7.1 Memory Memory is the Nervous System’s Capacity to Retain and Retrieve Skills and Knowledge  Memory – the nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge o This capacity enables organisms to take information from experiences and store it retrieval later  The information we store and the memories we retrieve are often incomplete, biased, and distorted o 2 people’s memories for the same event can differ vastly  Memories are often stories that can be altered subtly by the process of recollection Information Processing Model  Encoding – occurs at the time of learning, as information is transformed into a format that can be stored in memory o The brain changes information into a neural code that it can use o Brain converts the sensory stimuli on the page to meaningful neural codes  Storage – the retention of the coded representation o A change in the nervous system registers what you just experiences, retaining it as a memorable event o Consolidation – the neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in the memory  Neural connection that support memory become stronger, and new synapses are constructed  encoded information becomes stored in memory  Retrieval - consists of reaching into memory storage to find and bring to mind a previously encoded and stored memory when it is needed Memory is the Result of Brain Activity  Karl Lashley (1950) – engram – the physical site of memory storage o He trained rats to run a maze, then removed different areas of their cortices o Found that the size of the area removed was the most important factor is predicting retention; location of the area was less important o Equipotentiality - concluded that memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than confined to a specific location  Hebb (1949) – proposed that memory results from alterations in synaptic connections o In his model, memories are stored in multiple regions of the brain that are linked through memory circuits o When one neuron excites another, some change takes place that strengthens the connection between the two neurons. o The firing of one neuron becomes increasingly likely to cause the firing of the other neuron  Kandel showed that alterations in the functioning of the synapse lead to habituation and sensitization o His research demonstrated that long-term storage of information results from the development of new synaptic connections between neurons o This supports the idea that memory results from physical changes in connections between neurons  Long-term potentiation (LTP) - strengthening of a synaptic connection, making the postsynaptic neurons more easily activated o Serves as a model of how neural plasticity might underline memory o supports Hebb’s contention that learning results from a strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons that fire together o LOOK AT BOOK  NMDA receptor – glutamate receptor that opens only if a nearby neuron fires at the same time; the firing neuron releases glutamate into the synapse, and this neurotransmitter binds with the NMDA receptors on the postsynaptic neuron  Memory results from the strengthening synaptic connections among networks of neurons  Blocking HDAC leads to increased memory o Drugs that block HDAC lead to increased LTP o HDAC serves as a molecular “brake pad” which has to be released for memory to occur  Neural specialization occurs in memory; because of this specialization, different brain regions are responsible for storing different aspects of information  The temporal lobes are important for being able to say what you remember, but they are less important for memory involving motor actions  Medial temporal lobes – (middle section of the temporal lobes) - responsible for the formation of new memories o The actual storage occurs in the particular brain regions engaged during the perception, processing, and analysis of the material being learned o Ex: visual information is stored in the cortical areas involved in visual perception; sound is stored in the areas involved in auditory perception o Memory for sensory experiences, such as remembering something seen, or heard, involves reactivating the cortical circuits involved in the initial seeing/hearing o The medial temporal lobes form links, or pointers, between the different storage sites, and they direct the gradual strengthening of the connections between these links o Once these connections are strengthened sufficiently through consolidation, the medial temporal lobes become less important for memory  Reconsolidation – Neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrieval o When memories for past events are retrieved, those memories can be affected by certain circumstances, so the newly reconsolidated memories may differ from their original versions o Our memories begin as versions of what we have experienced o They might actually change when we use them, such as when they are changed by our mood, knowledge about the world, or beliefs o Happens each time a memory is activated and placed back in storage, and it may explain why our memories for events can change over time 7.2 How Memories Are Maintained Over Time Sensory Memory is Brief  Sensory Memory – a temporary memory system closely tied to the sensory systems o Lasts a fraction of a second o Not aware that it is operating  Everything we remember, therefore, is the result of neurons firing in the brain  Iconic memory – visual sensory memory  Echoic memory – auditory sensory memory  George Sperling (1960) – proposed the existence of sensory memory o Experiment: three rows of letters were flashed on a screen for 1/20 of a second; Participants were then asked to recall all the letters, but could only recall 3 or 4; by the time it took them to recall the first 3 or 4 letters, they forgot the other ones  Alternate hypothesis – the participants would be able to encode only 1 line of letters; showed all letters as before, but instead would signal it after the letters disappeared, with a high/medium/low pitched sound to indicate which row to recall o As a result, the participants correctly remembered almost all the letters in the signaled row o The longer the delay between the letters’ disappearance and the sound, the worse the participants performed o concluded that the visual memory persisted for about ⅓ of a second o after that period, the trace of the sensory memory faded until it was no longer accessible  our sensory memories enable us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations Working Memory is Active  short-term memory – a memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of information in awareness o information passes from sensory stores  short-term memory o Initially thought verbal memory is rehearsed until it was stored or forgotten o Instead, it is an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information.  Working memory - an active processing system that retains and manipulates different types of information available for current use o includes sound, images, and ideas o information remains here for about 20-30 seconds; lasts less than half a minute without continuous rehearsing o it then disappears unless you actively prevent that from happening o you retain the information by thinking about it or rehearsing it o retrieval, transformation, and substitution make distinct and independent contribution to updating the contents of working memory  Ex: substitution – expecting 20 people to show up for dinner, but is told there will 25; will substitute the ne number into working memory  Ex: retrieval/transformation/substitution – expecting 20 people to show up for dinner, but is told 5 more people will show up, he will need to retrieve the original number, and transform it by adding 5 and then substitute the new number in working memory o Memory span – limit is generally 7 items +/- 2  Now may be as limited to 4 items o Memory span varies among individuals o Capacity of working memory increases a s children develop and decreases with advanced aging  Chunking - organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember o The more efficiently you chunk information, the more you can remember Long-term Memory is Relatively Permanent  Long-term memory - the relatively permanent storage of information o distinct from working memory in two important ways: It has a longer duration, and it has a far greater capacity (controversy whether they are actually different)  serial position effect – 2 separate effects: o primacy effect - the better memory that people have for items presented at the beginning of the list o recency effect - better memory that people have for the most recent items, the ones at the end of the list  working memory and long-term memory are highly interdependent o to chunk information in working memory, people need to form meaningful connections based on information stored in long-term memory  what gets into long-term memory o information enters permanent storage through rehearsal o memories are strengthened with retrieval, so one way to make durable memories is to practice retrieval  We attend just enough for the task at hand and lose information that seems irrelevant o Ex: knowing what a $10 bill is, but not knowing the details on it  Information about an environment that helps us adapt to that environment is likely to be transformed into long-term memory  Evolutionary theory helps explain how we decided in advance what information will be useful  Memory allows us to use information in ways that assist in reproduction and survival 7.3 How Information is Organized in Long­Term Memory Long­Term Storage is Based on Meaning  The concept of “dog” is a mental representation for a category of animals that share certain features, such as barking and fur o Differs from mental representation for cat  Have mental representation for complex and abstract ideas, including beliefs and feelings  Mental representations are stored by meaning  1970s Craik and Lockhart – levels of processing model – the more deeply an item is encoded, the more meaning it has and the better it is remembered o proposed that different types of rehearsal lead to different levels of encoding  maintenance rehearsal – repeating the item over and over  elaborative rehearsal – encodes the information in more meaningful ways, such as thinking about the item conceptually or deciding whether it refers to oneself o elaborate on basic information by linking it to knowledge from long-term memory  showing a participant a list of words and  o ask them to do 1 of 3 things  visual judgement – what each word looks like  Is it printed in capital or lowercase letters?  Acoustic judgement – the sound of each word  Does it rhyme with this word?  Semantic judgment – the word’s meaning  Does it fit in this sentence? o Ask them to recall as many words as possible  will find that words processed at the deepest level, based on meaning, are  remembered the best  Brain imaging studies have shown that semantic encoding activates more brain regions than shallow encoding and that this greater brain activity is associated with better memory Schemas Provide an Organization Framework  Schema ­ cognitive structures (in long-term memory) that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information  guide our attention to an environment’s relevant features  because of schemas, construct new memories by filling in holes within existing memories, overlooking inconsistent information, and interpreting meaning based on past experiences  they provide structures for understanding events in the world; influence how we encode information in our daily lives  can bias how information is encoded; which occurs in part because culture heavily influences schemas Information Is Stored in Association Networks  networks of association – an item’s distinctive features are linked so as to identify the  item  node – each unit of information in the network o each node is connected to many other nodes o bits of information; not physical realities  the resulting network is like linked neurons in your brain  activating one node increases the likelihood that closely associated nodes will become activate  the closer the nodes are, the stronger the association between them  The stronger the association, the more likely that activating one node will activate the other  Spreading activation models of memory - stimuli in working memory activate specific nodes in long-term memory  This activation increases the ease of access to that material, therefore making retrieval easier Retrieval Cues Provide Access to Long­Term Storage   Retrieval cue ­ anything that helps a person (or a nonhuman animal) recall information stored in long-term memory  Encoding specificity principle ­ the idea that any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger a memory for the experience  Context­dependent memory – memory enhancement; when the recall situation is similar  to the encoding situation  o Can be based on things such as physical location, odors, and background music,  many of which produce a sense of familiarity  Internal cues can affect the recovery of information from long­term memory  State­dependent memory – memory can be enhanced when a person’s internal states  match during encoding and recall o Applies to internal states brought on by drugs or alcohol  Mnemonics ­ learning aids, strategies, and devices that improve recall through the use of retrieval cues o method of loci – memory palace; mnemonic that consists of associating items you  want to remember with physical locations 7.4 and 7.5 7.4 Long-term Memory Systems Explicit memory - the processes we use to remember information we can say we know  declarative memory - The cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared (consciously to mind) o words, concepts, images  Ex: when recalling what you had for dinner last night  Episodic memory - consists of a person’s past experiences and includes information about the time and place the experiences occurred th o Ex: remembering parts of 16 birthday  Semantic memory - knowledge of facts independent of personal experience; memory for knowledge about the world o Ex: people know what Jell-O is, they know that capitals of countries they never visited Implicit memory – unconscious memory  consists of memories without awareness of them; do not require conscious attention  Ex: past associations between the holidays and having fun  Procedural memory – (motor memory) involves motor skills, habits, and other behaviors used to achieve goals  Ex: coordinating muscle movements to ride a bike, ski, drive  Resistant to decay 7.5 Amnesia Amnesia - a deficit in long-term memory—resulting from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma—in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities of information.  Retrograde amnesia – a condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information  Anterograde amnesia - a condition in which people lose the ability to form new memories o H.M. had anterograde amnesia; he could remember information from the past, but after his surgery he could not form new memories. Although he may have acquired some new semantic knowledge about things occurring after his surgery through extensive repetition of material over time  Source amnesia - a type of misattribution that occurs when a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information


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