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BSC 216 Respiratory System Part 2

by: Vanessa Notetaker

BSC 216 Respiratory System Part 2 BSC 216

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 216 > BSC 216 Respiratory System Part 2
Vanessa Notetaker
GPA 3.71

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About this Document

Notes from Thursday September 29. All of the information on the graph describing respiration that Hicks did not include on slides and said really fast are here. Notes from class and powerpoints are...
Anatomy & Physiology II
Austin Hicks
Class Notes
Respiratory, anatomy, Physiology, Anatomy & Physiology II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
BSC 216 Respiratory System Part 2 Central and Peripheral Input to Respiratory Centers  The 3 Respiratory centers that control breathing do not act alone  They respond to changes in pH and CO as w2ll as inflation and stretching of the lungs Type of Receptors that Provide input to Respiratory Centers  Central chemoreceptors- brainstem neurons that respond to changes in pH of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) o pH of cerebrospinal fluid reflects the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood  more carbon dioxide decreases the pH and increases acidity o Respiration regulated to alter carbon dioxide levels  Slower respiration maintains carbon dioxide levels higher  Faster respiration expels more carbon dioxide and lowers levels  Peripheral chemoreceptors- located in the carotid and aortic bodies of the large bodies above the heart o Respond to the oxygen and carbon dioxide content and pH of the blood  Stretch receptors- found in the smooth muscles of bronchi and bronchioles and in the visceral pleura o Respond to the inflation of the lungs o Inflation (Hering-Breuer) Reflex: triggered by excessive inflation  Protective reflex that inhibits inspiratory neurons  Stops breathing  Irritant receptors- nerve endings amid the epithelial cells of the airway o Respond to smoke, dust, pollen, chemical fumes, cold air and excess mucus o Trigger protective reflexes such as bronchoconstriction, shallower breathing, breath-holding (apnea) or coughing A general model of CO2 detection in the CSF 1. CO2 diffuses easily into the cerebrospinal fluid 2. Hydration causes the formation of carbonic acid 3. Cerebrospinal fluid pH drops 4. Chemoreceptors are excited in CNS 5. Stimulates breathing  H2CO 3 HCO + 3- +  When the reaction moves to the right conditions become more acidic with the free hydrogen ions  When the reaction moves to the left the carbonic acid increases the pH (more basic) Fun Facts (fun is objective btw)  Hyperventilation- anxiety triggered state in which breathing is so rapid that it expels more carbon dioxide than you can produce it\ o When carbon dioxide levels drop it causes brain arteries to constrict leading to dizziness or even fainting o You can help your carbon dioxide levels from dropping too low by breathing into a paper bag so the carbon dioxide is breathed back in and not lost so quickly  Breathing is not like the heart and primary control originates in the motor cortex of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum bypassing the brainstem o There is a limit to voluntary control so that you CANNOT hold your breath until you die o When carbon dioxide levels rise to a point that the automatic controls override your personal will to hold your breath Pressure, Resistance and Airflow  Flow is proportional to the pressure gradient o Larger pressure gradient means more flow  Atmospheric pressure drives respiration o 760 mm Hg or 1 atm o The higher the elevation the lower the atmospheric pressure because you have less air above you to push down on you  BOYLE’S LAW- pressure is inversely proportional to its volume (at constant temperature) o Intrapulmonary pressure falls when lung volume increases o When pressure is above atmospheric pressure in the lungs the air moves out  CHARLES’S LAW-volume of gas is proportional to temperature o Increasing temperature of air in alveoli helps expand the alveoli with the increased pressure The Respiratory Cycle  Between breaths: intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure  Inspiration: Intrapulmonary pressure decreases and air rushes into the lungs  Expiration: Intrapulmonary pressure increases and air rushes out of lungs Resistance to Airflow  Pressure and Resistance determine airflow, in that order  Resistance influence by o Diameter of bronchioles  Larger diameter more flow o Pulmonary compliance  The easier for lungs to expand, more flow o Surface tension of alveoli and distal bronchioles  Hydrogen bonds pull water molecules close to each other creating a tense surface  Surfactant in the alveoli prevents the Hydrogen bonds between water molecules from sticking together and prevent the collapsing of alveoli  Surfactant- weakens surface tension and disrupts Hydrogen bonds Spirometry-The Measurement of Pulmonary Ventilation  Spirometry- the measurement of pulmonary function o Aids in diagnosis and assessment of restrictive and obstructive lung disorders  Spirometer-tool that recaptures exhalations o Records rate and depth of breathing, speed of expiration and rate of oxygen consumption  Restrictive disorders- produce pulmonary compliance (difficulty to expand) o Black lung disease and tuberculosis  Obstructive disorders- those that interfere with airflow by blocking or narrowing or blocking the airway o Make it harder to inhale and exhale  o Asthma and chronic bronchitis o Emphysema is the best of both worlds, it is restrictive and obstructive making it hard to expand the lungs and block or narrow the airways Respiratory Volumes and Capacities  Tidal volume (TV) o Amount of air inspired or expired during normal, quiet ventilation\  Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR) o Volume of air that reaches the alveoli multiplied by the breaths per minute  Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) o Volume of air that can be forcibly inspired after a normal tidal inspiration  Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) o Air that can be forcibly expired after a normal tidal expiration  Residual volume (RV) o The air that remains in the lungs even after the most forceful expiration  Inspiratory capacity o Total amount of air that a person can inspire after a tidal expiration o TV + IRV  Functional residual capacity o Amount of air that is normal after a tidal expiration o ERV+RV  Vital capacity o Total amount of exchangeable air o TV+IRV+ERV  Total lung capacity o Total amount of exchangeable and nonexchangeable air in the lungs o IRV+TV+ERV+RV Partial Pressure  Pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases  DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES: total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the contributions of the individual gases  Inspired and alveoli air have different partial pressures o Humidification of air is increased in alveolar air o Mixing of inspired and residual air o Alveolar exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide  More CO2, less O2 Alveolar Gas Exchange  The back and forth traffic of oxygen and carbon dioxide across a respiratory membrane  Air in the alveolus is in contact with a film of water covering the alveolar epithelium  For O2 to enter blood it must dissolve in water covering the epithelium and pass through the respiratory membrane separating air from the bloodstream  For CO2 to leave blood it must pass through the membrane into the alveolus into the alveolar air  Gases diffuse down their own concentration gradient until partial pressure of each gas is equal to their partial pressure in water  HENRY’S LAW o Amount of gas dissolved in water by solubility in water and partial pressure in air o Greater partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air the more oxygen the blood picks up because a greater gradient would drive the movement o Since blood arriving at alveolus has higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide than air it releases carbon dioxide into alveolar air o Blood unloads carbon dioxide and loads oxygen o Both gases independently behave and one diffusion does not affect the other Moving Gas From Lungs to Blood  Pulmonary arteries contain blood without oxygen  Steep concentration gradient between alveoli and pulmonary arteries drives oxygen to diffuse from alveoli to blood Alveolar Gas Exchange  There is a greater concentration gradient of oxygen than there is carbon dioxide  HOWEVER, CO2 diffues faster because it is 20 times more soluble than O2 Gas Transport  The process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systematic tissues and vice versa  98.5% of oxygen transport occurs through hemoglobin  70% of carbon dioxide transport occurs through bicarbonate ion  23% of carbon dioxide transport occurs through hemoglobin Oxygen Transport  Hemoglobin o Has 4 globin (protein) portions  Each has a heme group and ferrous ion (Fe ) to carry 1 oxygen molecule o Hemoglobin without oxygen is deoxyhemoglobin o Hemoglobin with oxygen is oxyhemoglobin  100% saturation- 4 O2 molecules  50% saturation- 2 O2 molecules Carbon Dioxide Transport  Transported as carbonic acid, carbamino compounds and dissolved in plasma  Most carbon dioxide is hydrated to become carbonic acid o It then dissociated into bicarbonate and a hydrogen ion  Some binds to the amino groups of plasma proteins and hemoglobin to form carbamino compounds o Mostly carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2) o Carbon dioxide does not compete with oxygen and binds to globulins rather than heme group  Some is transported in plasma as dissolved gas Systemic Gas Exchange  Unloading of oxygen and loading of carbon dioxide at systemic capillaries  CO2 loading o CO2 diffuses into blood from tissues o Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes carbonic acid formation o Chloride shift occurs to exchange bicarbonate for chloride ions  Hydrogen binds to hemoglobin  O2 unloading o Hydrogen ions bind to hemoglobin reducing affinity for oxygen o Hemoglobin then releases oxygen to go to tissues Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  Carbon monoxide competes for O2 binding sites in hemoglobin (ferrous ion in heme group) o Comes from cigarette smoke, engine exhaust ans fumes from furnaces and space heaters  Carboxyhemoglobin- carbon dioxide bonded to ferrous ion of hemoglobin o Carbon monoxide binds much stronger to the ferrous ion than oxygen does o Strong bonding means it stays bound for a much longer time  Nonsmokers have a 1.5% of hemoglobin bound by carbon monoxide  Smokers have 10%  Atmospheric conditions above .2% CO are lethal Smoking and Lung Cancer  Squamous cell carcinoma o Ciliated pseudostratified epithelium in bronchistratified squamous epithelium o Dividing cells invade the bronchial wall (lack of cilia speeds this up) and causes bleeding lesions o Dense swirls of keratin (scar tissue) replace functional tissue  Scar tissue does not have any of the functions of normal tissue  Adenocarcinoma o Originates in mucous glands of lamina propia  Small cell/oat cell carcinoma o Least common and most dangerous o Clusters of cell originate in primary bronchi and invade the mediastinum quickly metastasizing  90% of lung cancer originates in primary bronchi  Tumor invades bronchial wall, compresses the airway and causes atelectasis (lung collapse)  First sign is coughing blood and by then the cancer has already metastasized o Metastasis is very rapid  Prognosis very poor, only 7% patients survive after 5 years


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