Sports Psychology Notes: Chapter 11: Psychological Skills Training
Sports Psychology Notes: Chapter 11: Psychological Skills Training PSYCH 380
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keel on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 380 at University of South Carolina taught by Joe Ferraracci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Sports Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Psychology Skills Training Chapter 11 Monday, October 3, 2016 5:31 PM Psychologicalskills training refers to the systematicand consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, increasing enjoyment,or achieving greater self- satisfaction Mental Toughness: Mental Toughness is an athlete's ability to focus, rebound from failure, cope with pressure, and persist in the face of adversity, It is a form of mental resilience Mentally tough athletes have a high sense of self-belief and an unshakable faith that they can control their own destiny. They can remain relativelyunaffected by competitionor adversity Four C Model of Mental Toughness Control- is the capacity to feel and act as if one could exert n influence on the situation in question Commitment-a tendency to take an active role in events Challenge - is the perception of change as an opportunity to grow and dev3elop rather than a threat Confidence - is the strong sense of self-belief. Building Mental Toughness Factors not deliberately tough -sibling rivalries -supportive parents -coach expectations -motivationaltraining environment -teammateencouragement -tough practices -coping with failure Factors deliberately taught -creating a + motivationalpractice environment -intense competitivepractices -setting specific goals -providing instructional and supportive feedback -building confidence through rigorous physical preparation and conditioning Enhancing attentional control through self-statements(things like "I can…" or " I will…") -Making appropriate attributions for success and failure PST Program Facts PST methods and techniques comefrom a variety of sources, mostlyfrom mainstream psychology Guidelines have been developed to make PST more effective PST can have major effects on performance Why is PST important? Elite athletes feel that psychological factors primarily account for day-to-day fluctuations in performance. Traditionally, athletes spend little time practicing psychologicalskills Why are Psychological Skills Neglected? Lack of knowledge and comfortwith teaching it Misunderstandings about PS (Can't be learned?) Lack of time Keys to understanding PST While PST is a proven technique, users must be realistic about its use, it's not an elixir it is an aid They can be learned but they must be practiced and but into a routine. They can be learned but they must be practiced and but into a routine. PST Knowledge Base Research on elite athletes shows that most successful athletes differ from less successful ones in the following ways: -examples Athletes and coaches identified these as the most useful PST topics: -Arousal Regulation -Imagery and mental preparation -Confidence building -Increased motivationand commitment(goal setting) -Attention or concentration -Self-talk -Mental plans -Imagery Three Phases of PST Educational Phase -Psychologicalskills need to be taught and learned. Participants must recognize how important it is to acquire PST and how the skills affect performance. -increasing awareness of mental skills Green light = flow Yellow Light = caution or refocus (may need a psych skill to get back to the green light phase) Red Light = real trouble and may need some major coping Acquisition Phase -Focus on strategies and techniques -Tailor training programs to meetindividual needs (if one individual stands out as needing more help) -Provide general info to the group or team, but be specific when developing an individual's PST program -Psych skills should be learned--and practiced. Practice Phase -Learning psych skills should progress from practices and simulations to actual competitions -This phase focuses on automating skills through overlearning, integrating psych skills, and simulating the skills you want to apply to actual competitions -Log books help athletes chart progress and provide feedback for improvement (This phase never ends for mostathletes) Self-Regulation The ultimate goal of PST After psych skills training an athlete should be able to monitorand self-regulate his or her own emotionalstate Self-Regulation is the ability to work toward one's short and long term goals by effectively monitoring and managing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Moving Psych Skills Beyond Sport An educator might use relaxation training to teach a hyperactivechild to calm down A business leader might use goal setting to maintain motivationfor long-term projects A fitness instructor might use +-self-statementto enhance self-esteem in a client who is overweight Implementing PST Programs Who should conduct PST (Sport Psychologistor coach?) -Both can do so as long as they recognize their limits -Recognize potential conflicts of interests When should you implement PST? -In the off-season where there is more time (if crammedin it may be moreof a bad thing than a good thing) than a good thing) How long should training be? -10 to 15 minutes a day , three to five days per week When is the best time in one's career to engage in mental training? Mental training should continue no matter what the stage Vealey (2007) Mental Skills Model Emphasizes that multiple types of mental skills are important for success and well-being in coaches and athletes Foundation Skills: PerformanceSkills: Personal DevelopmentSkills: Team Skills: Implementing PST training Discuss your approach Asses the athletes mental skills Determinewhich psychological skills to include (should use ones that motivatepeople) Design a PST schedule Evaluate the program Assessing Mental Skills Assess strengths and weaknesses(either objectivelyor subjectively) Use psychological assessmenttechniques(performanceprofiling, oral interviews,psychological inventories) Consider the unique demands of the sport Obtain the perspectivesof other parties involved(ex: coaches, athlete trainers) Determining a Schedule Hold frequent, shorter meetings rather than infrequent, longer meetings. Hold informal as well as formal meetings Whenever possible, begin PST before the season begins Systematicallyschedule PST as part of a daily practice Guiding Principles for Olympic Mental Training 1. Mental training can't replace physical training 2. Physical training and physical ability are not enough to succeed consistently 3. A strong mind may not win an Olympic medal, but a weak mind will lose you one. 4. Coaches frequently don't know what the athletes are thinking (but it is important to take into account that they may not be showing how they actually feel) 5. Thoughts affect behavior. Consistency of thinking= consistently of behavior 6. Coaches have varying views of changing technical mistakes versus mental mistakes 7. Coaches must be involved in the mental training process (in that the athletes don’t have to do it on their own) 8. Sometimesit is OK to force athletes to take some time to do some mental training 9. Like any other skill, mental skills need to be measured in order to max performanceor these skills 10. Coaches need to think about their own mental skills. Developing and Displaying Expertise Experts versus Non-experts Experts compared to non-experts anticipate their opponents intentions significantly more quickly Experts are moreaccurate in their decision making Experts have fewer fixations of the eyes but for long durations Experts extract moretask-relevant info from each eye fixation. Experts have longer "quiet eye" periods (time when task-relevantinfo cues are processed and motorplans coordinated) Experts pick info from opponents movementsmore quickly Common Problems in Implementing a PST Program Common Problems in Implementing a PST Program Lack of conviction Lack of time Lack of Knowledge of sport Lack of follow-up