Cognitive Psychology 2101 Week 5 Notes (9/27 and 9/29)
Cognitive Psychology 2101 Week 5 Notes (9/27 and 9/29) PSY 2101 - 001
Popular in FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2101 - 001 at Temple University taught by Pamela J. Shapiro (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Temple University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapter 5: Paying Attention Attention ● Concentration of the mental powers upon an object; a close or careful observing or listening ● The ability or power to concentrate mentally ● You can only attend to so much information at one time ● Focusing information is important ● You can direct your attention according to the task ● Sometimes employs a task known as shadowing ○ Dichotic listening: ■ Using headphones, different information is presented to each ear ■ Attended channel: where the participant directs attention ■ Unattended channel: where the participant ignores information ■ Some information (frequent or recent information, most likely) will be noticed even if presented to the unattended channel ○ This phenomenon is noticed in the cocktail party effect Selective Attention ● The skill through which one focuses on one input or one task while ignoring other stimuli ● Sometimes it is so strong that we fail to see stimuli that are directly in front of our eyes ● Inattentional Blindness ● If participants are asked to look at a fixation target while attending to another part of a computer screen ○ they may fail to notice changes in shape to the fixation target ● No warning leads to failure to detect change ● Similar effects with visual attention studies ○ Classic studies like gorilla and basketball study ○ Results from the study suggest that unusual characteristics of the unattended channel go unnoticed → might conclude there is no perception without attention ○ Other studies → unconscious perception still occurs in the absence of attention (subliminal messages) ■ MullerLyer illusion ● Change Blindness ● The inability of observers to detect changes in scenes they are looking directly at ○ Mostly seen in movies and motion pictures (continuity errors) ○ E.g. study where person asking for directions changes identity (following a brief interruption by two people carrying a door) ● EarlySelection Hypothesis ○ The unattended input receives little to no analysis ○ Stimulus is not “perceived” ○ Neurons are more responsive to attended stimuli than to unattended stimuli (demonstrated by electrical activity of the brain for attended versus unattended inputs) ● LateSelection Hypothesis ○ All input receives analysis but only the attended input reaches consciousness or is remembered ○ We see it or hear it, but don’t remember seeing or hearing it ○ MullerLyer line illusion demonstrated lateselection hypothesis ● ((Both the early and late selection hypotheses capture part of the truth)) ● Selection depends on resources ○ Complex stimuli involve more effort, leading to early selection ○ Easy stimuli involve less effort, leading to late selection ● Selection as a form of priming ○ Lower threshold leads to easier recognition ■ Attended channel has lower threshold ● Posner and Snyder (1975) ○ ((Neutral stimulus=different character/symbol; Primed stimulus=correct letter; misleading stimulus=wrong letter)) ○ Two kinds of priming related to attention ■ Expectationbased priming: does involve effort (topdown) ● Greater in magnitude (greater benefit) than stimulus based (a.k.a: slower) ● “Costs” are evident in the slower reaction time to misled targets (a.k.a: more costly) ● High validity condition: priming letter predicted stimulus 80% of the time ○ Primed condition much faster than neutral ■ Demon strates effect of expectation and repetition priming ○ Misled condition was slower than neutral ■ Expect ation is limited in capacity; wrong expectation interferes with activating the correct detectors ■ Stimulusbased priming: does not inlove effort (bottomup) ● Fast. few costs ● Lowvalidity condition: Priming letter predicted stimulus letter only 20% of the time ○ Many misled trials ■ Primed condition faster than neutral ■ Misled same as neutral ○ Facilitation only Chapter 5 Part 2: Neurosubstrates of Attention ● Parietal and frontal cortex are involved attention Spatial Attention ● The ability to focus on a particular position in space ● Directing spatial attention is different than moving the eyes ● Do we attend to positions in space or to objects? ○ Evidence from unilateral neglect syndrome supports a space based view ■ Damage to the right parietal lobe ■ Cannot attend to the left side of space ■ Some experiments suggest that the deficit is also objectbased ● Patient initially sees right side ● As patient attends to right side as it moves, they can see it when it is on the left Divided attention ● Refers to the skill of performing multiple tasks simultaneously ● This is only possible when the sum of the tasks’ demands is within the “cognitive budget ● If they exceed our “cognitive budget,” we can’t do it ● Some cognitive resources are specialized ○ E.g. verbal and spatial tasks can sometimes be performed simultaneously because each draws upon different resources ● Other cognitive resources are general ○ E.g. speaking on a cell phone while driving ● Proposed taskgeneral cognitive resources: ○ Response selector: required for selecting and initiating responses (both physical and mental) ○ Central Executive: sets goals and priorities, chooses strategies, and directs the function of many cognitive processes ■ Executive control is strongly connected with working memory ■ Believed to inhibit automatic or habitual responses when a situation requires a novel response BONUS INFO: ZAPS: Stroop Effect: ● Congruent: ○ Word and color match ● Incongruent: ○ Word and color do not match ○ processing word meaning conflicts with the color recognition process, causing you to respond more slowly. ● Semantic interference ○ being distracted by the meaning of words ● Evidence in neuroimaging ○ Studies using neuroimaging have provided evidence that during a Stroop test the meaning of words is determined in a part of the brain’s temporal lobe called Wernicke’s area, while the color of the text is, at least initially, processed by the visual areas of the occipital lobe. Studies provide evidence that a third area of the brain, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is crucial in evaluating the two sources of information, ignoring the irrelevant one, and making a decision ● Understanding the Stroop effect should help you understand the broader psychological concept of mental conflict
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