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Cognitive Psychology 2101 Week 5 Notes (9/27 and 9/29)

by: Asmaa Abdullah

Cognitive Psychology 2101 Week 5 Notes (9/27 and 9/29) PSY 2101 - 001

Marketplace > Temple University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 2101 - 001 > Cognitive Psychology 2101 Week 5 Notes 9 27 and 9 29
Asmaa Abdullah
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 5 as covered by Dr. Shapiro this week during class.
Pamela J. Shapiro (P)
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2101 - 001 at Temple University taught by Pamela J. Shapiro (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Temple University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapter 5: Paying Attention Attention ● Concentration of the mental powers upon an object; a close or careful observing  or listening ● The ability or power to concentrate mentally ● You can only attend to so much information at one time ● Focusing information is important ● You can direct your attention according to the task ● Sometimes employs a task known as shadowing ○ Dichotic listening: ■ Using headphones, different information is  presented to each ear ■ Attended channel: where the participant directs  attention ■ Unattended channel: where the participant  ignores information ■ Some information (frequent or recent information,  most likely) will be noticed even if presented to the unattended channel ○ This phenomenon is  noticed in the cocktail party effect Selective Attention ● The skill through which one focuses on one input or one task while ignoring other stimuli ● Sometimes it is so strong that we fail to see stimuli that are directly in front of our  eyes ● Inattentional Blindness ● If participants are asked to look at a fixation target while attending  to another part of a computer screen ○ they may fail to notice changes in shape to the  fixation target ● No warning leads to failure to detect change ● Similar effects with visual attention studies ○ Classic studies like gorilla and basketball study ○ Results from the study suggest that unusual  characteristics of the unattended channel go unnoticed → might conclude there is no perception without attention ○ Other studies → unconscious perception still  occurs in the absence of attention (subliminal messages) ■ Muller­Lyer illusion ● Change Blindness ● The inability of observers to detect changes in scenes they are  looking directly at ○ Mostly seen in movies and motion pictures  (continuity errors) ○ E.g. study where person asking for directions  changes identity (following a brief interruption by two people carrying a  door) ● Early­Selection Hypothesis ○ The unattended input receives little to no analysis ○ Stimulus is not “perceived” ○ Neurons are more responsive to attended stimuli than to  unattended stimuli (demonstrated by electrical activity of the brain for attended  versus unattended inputs) ● Late­Selection Hypothesis ○ All input receives analysis but only the attended input reaches  consciousness or is remembered ○ We see it or hear it, but don’t remember seeing or hearing it ○ Muller­Lyer line illusion demonstrated late­selection hypothesis ● ((Both the early­ and late­ selection hypotheses capture part of the truth)) ● Selection depends on resources ○ Complex stimuli involve more effort, leading to early selection ○ Easy stimuli involve less effort, leading to late selection ● Selection as a form of priming ○ Lower threshold leads to easier recognition ■ Attended channel has lower threshold ● Posner and Snyder (1975) ○ ((Neutral stimulus=different character/symbol; Primed  stimulus=correct letter; misleading stimulus=wrong letter)) ○ Two kinds of priming related to attention ■ Expectation­based priming: does involve effort  (top­down) ● Greater in magnitude (greater  benefit) than stimulus based (a.k.a: slower) ● “Costs” are evident in the slower  reaction time to misled targets (a.k.a: more costly) ● High validity condition: priming letter  predicted stimulus 80% of the time ○ Primed condition  much faster than neutral ■ Demon strates effect of expectation and repetition  priming ○ Misled condition was  slower than neutral ■ Expect ation is limited in capacity; wrong expectation  interferes with activating the correct detectors ■ Stimulus­based priming: does not inlove effort  (bottom­up) ● Fast. few costs ● Low­validity condition: Priming letter  predicted stimulus letter only 20% of the time ○ Many misled trials ■ Primed condition faster than neutral ■ Misled  same as neutral ○ Facilitation only Chapter 5 Part 2: Neurosubstrates of Attention ● Parietal and frontal cortex are involved attention Spatial Attention ● The ability to focus on a particular position in space ● Directing spatial attention is different than moving the eyes ● Do we attend to positions in space or to objects? ○ Evidence from unilateral neglect syndrome supports a space­ based view ■ Damage to the right parietal lobe ■ Cannot attend to the left side of space ■ Some experiments suggest that the deficit is also  object­based ● Patient initially sees right side ● As patient attends to right side as it  moves, they can see it when it is on the left Divided attention ● Refers to the skill of performing multiple tasks simultaneously ● This is only possible when the sum of the tasks’ demands is within the “cognitive  budget ● If they exceed our “cognitive budget,” we can’t do it ● Some cognitive resources are specialized ○ E.g. verbal and spatial tasks can sometimes be performed  simultaneously because each draws upon different resources ● Other cognitive resources are general ○ E.g. speaking on a cell phone while driving ● Proposed task­general cognitive resources: ○ Response selector: required for selecting and initiating  responses (both physical and mental) ○ Central Executive: sets goals and priorities, chooses strategies,  and directs the function of many cognitive processes ■ Executive control is strongly connected with  working memory ■ Believed to inhibit automatic or habitual responses  when a situation requires a novel response BONUS INFO: ZAPS: Stroop Effect: ● Congruent: ○ Word and color match ● Incongruent: ○ Word and color do not match ○ processing word meaning conflicts with the color recognition  process, causing you to respond more slowly. ● Semantic interference ○ being distracted by the meaning of words ● Evidence in neuroimaging ○ Studies using neuroimaging have provided evidence that during a  Stroop test the meaning of words is determined in a part of the brain’s temporal  lobe called Wernicke’s area, while the color of the text is, at least initially,  processed by the visual areas of the occipital lobe. Studies provide evidence that a third area of the brain, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is crucial in evaluating  the two sources of information, ignoring the irrelevant one, and making a decision ● Understanding the Stroop effect should help you understand the broader  psychological concept of mental conflict


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