Chapter 2 notes: Courts & Alternative Dispute Resolution
Chapter 2 notes: Courts & Alternative Dispute Resolution Bus 391
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bus 391 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Jon Saffold in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Business Law in Business at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
CHAPTER 2 Courts & Alternative Dispute Resolution Judicial Review: The process by which a court decides the constitutionality of legislative enactments and actions by the executive branch. Marbury v. Madison (1803) “It is emphatically the province and duty of the [courts] to say what the law is…. So if the law be in opposition to the Constitution … [t]he Court must determine which of these conflicting rules governs the case. This is the very essence of judicial duty.” JURISDICTION Jurisdiction: The authority of a court to hear and decide a specific action. Jurisdiction has many dimensions, including: Personal Jurisdiction: The authority of a court to hear and decide a dispute involving the particular parties before it. More than one court may have jurisdiction over a given case Need jurisdiction over either Subject Matter Jurisdiction: The authority of a court to hear and decide the particular dispute before it. Original Jurisdiction: The authority of a court to hear and decide a dispute in the first instance. Generally speaking, trial courts are courts of original jurisdiction, although the Supreme Court of the United States and the highest courts of many of the states have original jurisdiction over a few types of disputes. Appellate Jurisdiction: The authority of a court to review a prior decision in the same case made by another court. PERSONAL JURISDICTION In Personam Jurisdiction: Place of Residence: “Milwaukee has jurisdiction over me because that is where I live right now” The place that you live has jurisdiction over you Residency Doing business in the state Submission to the jurisdiction Out of State Defendants: *Exam Longarm statute: allows us to get jurisdiction over out of state defendants. It has a standard that evaluates sufficient minimum contacts. EX: Xbox and Microsoft examples Sufficient Minimum Contacts: nature of the contacts, quantity of the context, quality of the context ($, percentage made in the state of jurisdiction, usually want a smaller percentage), is it fair that they would come appear. In Rem Jurisdiction: the power a court may exercise over property (either real or personal) or a "status" against a person over whom the court does not have in personam jurisdiction. “power over property”: the dispute b/w the parties is over property Where property is located creates jurisdiction. EXAM QUESTION: You have to have jurisdiction over the person to sue them, so you have to file suit in the state that the accident or etc. happened. If they live in a different state, then you can file suit in that state that they live. SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION Defined in the statute or constitution creating the court. STATE COURT Limited vs. General: Limited: only on certain types of cases such as bankruptcy, family matters, etc. Derive power from an issuing authority, such as a Constitution or a statute. General: courts that have jurisdictionHas the authority to hear cases of all kinds – criminal, civil, family, probate, and so forth. Original & Appellate Original: trial court, where law suits start This means the court has the right to hear the case first. The federal court system did not have original jurisdiction over Gideon's case because his case concerned a state law. Appellate: appeals if we believe that the judge made an error then we can bring a case to the court of appeals. Only hear cases that have been brought to them on appeal from a lower court. This means the court hears an appeal from a court of original jurisdiction. The appeals court uses appellate jurisdiction to review a lower court's decision. Just keep in mind that the appellate court will not hear the entire case. It is not a new trial. Concurrent & Exclusive: Concurrent: more than one court has jurisdiction over it Exclusive: only one court has jurisdiction over it. JURISDICTION OF FEDERAL COURTS Federal Question Jurisdiction: questioning a federal law or federal statute Ex: is it legal to burn a flag? You can so long as it is a part of a peaceful protest *every state has at least one federal court Diversity Jurisdiction: diversity of citizenship jurisdiction. 1. Parties to be citizens of 2 different states 2. The amount of controversy over $75,000 (if there are damages greater than $75,000, then you can bring it to a federal court. When the parties are citizens of two different states, or one party is a U.S. citizen and the other is a citizen of a foreign country. A diversity plaintiff may choose to bring the case in federal district court, though state law may be used to decide the case. For purposes of diversity jurisdiction, a corporation is a citizen of both: (1) its state of incorporation, and (2) the state of its principal place of business, if the two are not the same. JURISDICTION IN CYBERSPACE Personal jurisdiction is traditionally a function of geography – where one or more party resides or where the alleged wrong occurred. The Internet makes geographic distinctions difficult and potentially meaningless. An increasing number of courts are resolving personal jurisdiction issues by applying a “sliding scale” that makes it more likely that a court will exercise jurisdiction over a distant defendant the more business that defendant conducts over the Internet and the more interactive its web presence is in the jurisdiction. VENUE AND STANDING Venue: Where is the location of the trial? T0 change the location you make a motion for a change in venue. Change venue if 1. it could be inconvenient for the parties to have a trial in that place, or 2. Unfairness, a party not feel as if they will get a fair trial in a certain location. Standing to Sue: actually been a real injury to a person, property, etc. that you can remedy for. And you are the actual person that got injured (sufficient stake). Case or Controversy: must be a real case Ripeness: if a court gives a decision, then it can solve the party’s problems. Needs to be ripe enough for the case. Ex: oil company spill: the damages have to play out until you can go sue them, only one shot at it. STATE COURT SYSTEMS Trial Courts: Trial courts are where all litigation (other than that conducted through administrative agencies) begins. Trial courts have either general jurisdiction – meaning that they are empowered to consider any matter before them – or limited jurisdiction – meaning that they are only empowered to hear certain types of cases or cases in which the amount in controversy is above, below, or between, specified bounds. Appellate Courts: Every state has at least one appellate court, to which a litigant who was unsuccessful at the trial court may appeal for relief. Appellate courts limit their review to questions of law, rather than questions of fact. State Supreme Courts: Most state supreme courts, like the U.S. Supreme Court, have discretionary review (i.e., they decide whether or not to consider the merits of a particular case). THE FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM U.S. District Courts: Trial courts of general jurisdiction, each state (as well as the District of Columbia and certain other U.S. territories and possessions) has at least one “district,” and some states have as many as four. U.S. Courts of Appeals: Appellate courts to which litigants in the U.S. District Courts have an automatic right to appeal (i.e., the court of appeal must consider each appeal on its merits). These courts also hear appeals from U.S. Bankruptcy Courts and other specialized courts and, in the case of the D.C. Circuit, from federal administrative agency decisions. These courts cover twelve geographic regions, with a thirteenth court, the Federal Circuit, empowered to hear appeals from any district court involving patent law, cases in which the United States is a defendant, and other specified types of cases. U.S. Supreme Court: The “highest court in the land,” the U.S. Supreme Court exercises discretionary review over all federal appellate courts, as well as, in some circumstances, state supreme and appellate courts. Most cases reach the U.S. Supreme Court on writ of certiorari, which requires that at least four justices agree the case merits the Court’s review. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION Negotiation: Mediation: Arbitration: Minitrial Summary Jury Trial
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