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Intro Human Development; Week 6

by: Alissa Cherry

Intro Human Development; Week 6 16985

Marketplace > Kansas State University > FSHS 110 > 16985 > Intro Human Development Week 6
Alissa Cherry
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover Infancy and the stages of growth during the first 0-2 years
Intro Human Development
Katie Thompson-Laswell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alissa Cherry on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 16985 at Kansas State University taught by Katie Thompson-Laswell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Development in FSHS 110 at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Infancy Chapter 3 Thursday, September 29, 2016 8:37 PM Four principles of growth: 1 Cepalocaudel-head to tail 2 Proximodistal-near to far 3 Hierarchical Integration-simple skill develop separately and independently, then integrate over time 4 Independence of Systems-different body systems grow at different rates The brain is under construction in the first years of life Experiences are translated into architecture Good and bad interactions:  Service and return interaction o Communication o Eye Contact o Small games like 'peek a boo'  Toxic abuse o Neglect o Teratogens in the household Neuron-basic cells of the nervous system (Turn to page… in the textbook to see the diagram of the cell) Cell body- Nucleus- Dendrites- Axon- Myelin sheath- Terminal buttons- When we are born we get 100-200 billion neurons and few are connected. During the first two years of life, connections start to take place and become more complex. Neurons have the ability to reposition themselves with growth and become arranged by function. The thicker the connections are, the more that particular habit in the child's mind is, the better picture they have in their mind.  Sensation-physical stimuli of the senses and the organs (take info. In with your senses)  Perception-mental process of sorting and analyzing data (doing something with the senses and giving it meaning) By 6 months, an infant has 2020 vision  Distant vision is 10 to 30 times poorer than the adults Basic reflexes present at birth require touch sensitivity to operate; it is one of the most highly developed sense at birth Cognitive Domain Piaget  Action=Knowledge  We build senses through assimilation and accommodation o Assimilation-process of which people understand experiences in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking o Accommodation-child changes existing way of thinking, understanding, or behaving Substage 1 (0-1 months) Simple reflexes Inborn Reflexes  Same reflexes to accommodate the infants experience Substage 2 (1-4 months) First Primary Habits and Coordination of separate actions into integrated activities Primary Circular Reactions  Engage baby's interests are repeated by experience Substage 3 (4-8 months) Secondary Circular Reactions Act upon the outside world  Seek to repeat enjoyable events (secondary curricular actions) Substage 4 (8-12 months) Coordination of Secondary Goal-directed behavior Circular Reactions  Knowing things exist without seeing it  Object permanence Substage 5 (12-18 Tertiary Circular Reactions Deliberate variation of actions months)  Minatare experiments to observe consequences  "Little scientists" Substage 6 (18 months-2 Beginning of Thought Mental representation or symbolic thought years)  Causality  Pretend  Differed Imitation Language development order Referential speech “what’s that” a) Cooing (vowels) b) Babbling (repetition of sounds) Expressive speech “I love you; c) First words (holophrases) d) First sentences (telegraphic speech) I sorry” 3 Approaches to Language development Early speech a) Learning Theory-language as a learned skill  Overextension: “learn b) Nativist Approach-language as innate skill what a doggy is; know everything is doggy” c) Interactionist Approach-genetics and  Underextension: “knows environment what a round ball is; Infant directed speech-characterized by short simple every other ball like a sentences, higher pitch, increased range, varied football is not a ball” intonation, and repetition of words (infant directed speech changed when children get older) Psychosocial Domain 1. Nonverbal encoding-nonverbal expression of emotions (facial expressions, body language) 2. Stranger anxiety-being wary of unfamiliar people around 6 months a. Separation anxiety-distress when primary caregiver is gone; around 7 months and peaks around 14 months 3. Social Referencing-intentional search for other’s feelings to explain uncertain situations 4. Attachment- positive emotional bond between child and caregiver a. Secure- use caregiver as secure base b. Avoidant- do not seek proximity to caregiver; don’t seem distressed when caregiver is absent c. Ambivalent- display a combination or positive and negative reactions to caregiver; can be clingy; shows distress when caregiver is gone; can show anger upon return Erikson’s Psychosocial Development-First 2 Stages Stage Name Age of Child Description/Key Words Trust vs. Mistrust 0-18 months Trust=sense of hope and success Mistrust=sense of harsh. Unfriendly world Autonomy vs. Shame and 18 months-3 years Autonomy=sense of Doubt independence Shame and Doubt=sense of self-doubt and unhappiness Temperament is categorized in 4 profiles: a) Easy babies (Flexible)=positive disposition, rhythmic, adaptable, approaches, low intensity-40% b) Difficult babies (Feisty)=  more negative mood or moody, active, intense, slow to adapt, sensitive, withdraws, irregular routines – 10% c) Slow-to-warm-up (Fearful)=  inactive, calm reactions, mood negative, withdraws, adapt slowly – 15% d) Inconsistently categorized babies (Fearful)=  variety of characteristics – 35%


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