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POS 160 Week 7 Notes 16

by: Alexandra Notetaker

POS 160 Week 7 Notes 16 POS160

Alexandra Notetaker
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Global Politics
Dr. Reed M. Wood
Class Notes
pos, 160, political science, global, Politics, study, notes, Lecture Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POS160 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Reed M. Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Global Politics in Political Science at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
POS160 TERRORISM  ComplicatedDefinition  Departmentofstate:  Premeditated,politicallymotivatedviolence perpetratedagainstnoncombatanttargetsby subnationalgroupsor clandestine agents  DepartmentofDefense:  The unlawfuluseofviolence orthreat ofviolence toinstillfear& coerce gov’tandsociety. Terrorismisoften motivatedbyreligious,political,or other ideologicalbeliefsand committedin thepursuitofgoalsthat areusuallypolitical.  FBI:  Unlawfuluseofforce/violence againstpersons or propertytointimidate or coerce agov’t, thecivilian population,or anysegmentthereof,in furtherance orpoliticalor social objectives  WhatisTerrorism?  Premeditation  Politically motivated  Non-combatanttargets  Perpetratorsare non-stateactors  *Distinction between terror & “guerrilla”tactics  State& State-sponsoredviolence  Stateviolence:againstnon-combatants  Mostegregiousformsofterror  Masskilling,genocide,grossviolationsofHR  Changing in Understanding ofTerror—Thru History  Terror haschangedover time  FrenchRevolution (late 1700s):Gov’tactionsdesignedtoensure orderandcrushcounter revolutionaries  Late 1800s:“Propagandaofdeed”targetedassassinationsbysmallrevolutionarygroups  1930s:stateterrorism; massintimidation/killing; FascistGermany&Italy;CommunistUSSR  1990s:Narco-terror & crime/politicalviolence overlap  Post2001:“Waron Terror”; terror in abstract; focuson radicalIslamterror  NOTE:whatwe think ofas“terrorism”&whowe viewas“terrorists”changesbasedon context.  Political Role in Terrorism  One state’sterroristisanother’sfreedomfighter  Causesofterror  Similartocivilwar  Grievances(poverty& inequality)  Lack politicalopportunity  Gov’trepression  Motivesfor Terror  Terrorismisastrategyofwar  Allterroristsareinsurgents; butallinsurgentsare notterrorists  Goalofterrorismisnottosimplykill  Terrorisusedstrategicallytoachieve politicalgoals  “Rational”Violence  Media& policymakerspaintterrorismasirrational,evil “madmen”  Difficulttounderstanddepravity&violence  Morallyawful  Hardtoexplain whypeople become terrorists  Yet terror groupstypicallyactstrategically—notcrazy  Terrorhelpsachieve goals  Instrumental  LogicofTerrorism  Terrorhasaruthlesslogic  Premeditated  Calculated  Usedin differentcontext in differentgroups  Religioncan playacentralrole  Religionnotnecessary  Manysecularterroristgroups  Strategyisrationaltotheextentthat itisusedtoachieve goals  *Note:Rationaldoesnotequalexcusable  CentralQuestion:Whatmakesterrorseemlikeausefulstrategy?  Terrorisintendedtoachieve avarietyofstrategicgoals  Gain recognition (propaganda)  Discreditgov’t  Enforce obedience  Provoke violence  Buildmorale/group control  Compensatefor weakness  Impose costson gov’t  Assumptions  Terroristsare politicalextremists  Maybe religious,ethic,notional,ideological,etc.  Extremismhelpsexplain bargaining failuresandchoice oftargets  These groupsare politicallyandmilitarilyweakrelative totheir demands  Generallysmallnetwork ofradicals  Majorityofpopulation doesnotshare beliefs  Hardfor extremisttoconvince others  Demandsexceedrelative bargaining position  Explaining Terror  Weak positionsleadtoextremeandviolent tactics  Terrorismisextremeformsofasymmetricalwarfare  Avoiddirectmilitaryconfrontation  Theywouldbe beaten badly  Attack “soft”targetsinstead  Often referredtoas“weapon oftheweak”  Bargaining  Terroristsuse violence toimprove bargaining position  Attacksseektoimpose costson target:  Gov’t  Civilian audience  *NOTE:victimsareNOTtarget  Increasingcoststotargetsimprovesextremistbargaining position.  StrategiesofTerror:  3genericactors:  Terrororganization  Targetstate  Population  4 strategiesofviolence  Coercion  Provocation  Spoiling  Outbidding  CoerciveBargaining  Attacksmaynotimpose direct/indirectcostson gov’t  Directcosts:  Instability,infrastructuredamage,economicloss,etc.  Gov’tappearsineffectual& weak  IndirectCosts:  Pressuresgov’t tomeet extremistdemands  Strategymosteffective againstdemocracies  Provocation  Terroristsmayattack tosimplyprovokearesponse fromthetarget gov’t  Terroristsattack a“soft”target  Gov’trespondwith misappropriatedforce  Response radicalizesmoderates  Sympathy& support for terrorists  Assupportexpands,terroristsbargaining position improves  Terroristsdemandsmorelikelytobe met  Violentcounterinsurgencytacticsseldomwork.  Spoiling  Terroristsmayattempt tosabotagepotentialpeace  Gov’toftennegotiatewith moderate factions  Attacksbyradicalfactions jeopardizepeacedeals  Moreextremefactionsattack because theyopposedeal  Dealnotgoodenough  Moderatessellout  Radicalscutoutofnegotiations  Regimewillnotsee moderatesascredible bargainingpartnersifradicalattack  Cannotcontrol  Peacecollapses  Considerhumanv.PLO(PLA)in peace dealswith Israel  Core problemisquestion ofhow muchcontrolmoderatorshave.  Outbidding  Terroristsmayalsoattacktarget toincreasesupport withinthe home population  When 2or more terroristgroupscompete,theytrytooutbideachother:  The group hopestodemonstrate itsdevotion andcapacity  Itistherealdeal  Possiblyeffective when significantproportion ofthetarget population supports violence  Targetaudience distinctfromtarget population (victims)  Morecommon in ethnic& religiousconflicts  Israel/Palestine; IRAN.Ireland


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