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Neanderthals and Modern Humans

by: Savannah Mahalak

Neanderthals and Modern Humans

Marketplace > Georgia Southern University > > Neanderthals and Modern Humans
Savannah Mahalak

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About this Document

Neanderthals, Modern Humans, and talks about the evolution of humans and the difference between them.
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Mahalak on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Georgia Southern University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Sunday, October 2, y Neanderthalenis Homo Neanderthalensis ­ Genetic relationship with modern humans ­ 225­36 KYA ­ Made Mousterian tools ­ Found in Europe and Southwest Asia Nanderthals ­ Short, squat bodies ­ Larger, thicker bones than in modern humans ­ Better adapted to harsh and cold climates (large noses)  ­ Brains were the same size (roughly) as those of modern humans (sometimes larger) ­ Different shaped skulls than our own ­ Low, sloping foreheads, whereas ours are much higher Early (Australopithicene) Technology ­ Based on behavior and anatomy of chimpanzees • Leaf sponges  • Marrow picks • Termite wands  • Levers 2.5 Million Years Ago (MYA) ­ Direct evidence for tool manufacture and use is absent before 2.5 million years ago ­ First recognized toolkit is called Oldwan 1 Sunday, October 2, y First Stone Tools ­ Most are (very simple) flake tools ­ Made by Homo habilis Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania ­ Oldowan tools ­ 1.8 ­ 1.65 MYAEvidence for precision grip and coordination Scavenging ­ A major use of the earliest stone tools ­ Different than hunting ­ Getting marrow was an especially important part of scavenging Homo Erectus ­ Acheuleun tools (1.4 MYA) First Fire?  ­ 1.3 MYA, by Homo Erectus ­ Evidence is from sites in South Africa and China ­ Sites to Know: Zhuukodian, China; and Kubictora, Kenya Mousterian Tools ­ 200, 000 to 27, 000 years ago ­ First hominids to haft stone points to wooden spears Care for the Injured, 60 KYA ­ Neanderthals took care of elderly and sick individuals  ­ “Old Man” at La ­ Chappelle ­aux­ Saints, France (40 years old) 2 Sunday, October 2, y ­ Suffered from severe paralysis and arthritis, including a broken jaw and missing teeth ­ Someone else had to provide his food, pre ­ chew his food and assist him in moving Shadier Cave, Iraq ­ Severely disabled individual (40­ish) ­ Could not hunt ­ Skeletal damage to one eye ­ Atrophied arm (birth defect)  ­ Probably cared for by other group members Neanderthals Buried their Dead ­ Snider Cave, Iraq: One Neanderthal was found lying in the fetal position surrounded  by pollen spores representing flowers. The flowers were all medicinal Milestones in becoming human  ­ H. habilis: first stone tools ­ H. Erectus: Had stone took ket (Acheulean), probably had language, definitely had  fire ­ H. neandertholensis: had stone took kit (Mousterian), probably had language, buried  dead, cared for the infirm ­ H. Sapiens: made art objects Anatomically Modern Humans ­ Flat faces, no heavy brow ridge, no prrognathism ­ New forms of technology and social behavior Neanderthals ­ Evidence that they hunted cooperatively with their Mousterian toolkits 3 Sunday, October 2, y ­ Often drove large herds of game over cliffs (including horses and reindeer)  ­ Some structures made of mammals bones and covered with skins Neanderthal Language ­ Language is suggested by evidence for cooperative hunting ­ Flutes have been found, which also suggest some form of communication Anatomically Modern Humans ­ 200 KYA in Africa ­ Flat faces, no heavy brow ridge, protruding chin, no prognathism  ­ New forms of technology and social behavior  ­ Defining characteristics of anatomically modern humans: • New stone tool technologies • Larger numbers of settlements  • Larger settlements and house Upper Paleolithic Art Two Kinds:  ­ Parietal ­art made on walls, commonly known as cave painting ­ Portable ­ art you can take with you  Cave Paintings (30­20 KYA) ­ Known as parietal art. Examples include:  • Lascaux, France • Cheviot, France  • Altamira, Spain Lascaux, France 4 Sunday, October 2, y ­ The most widely known of the cave painting sites ­ Some human figures are shown in association with animals, some of whom are  running or bleeding to death, with arrows in their bodies Cheviot, France  ­ No humans depicted in the paintings, but negative handprints were made there  ­ Many species of animals are shown running along the cave walls Altamira, Spain ­ Bison, horse, and deer were common depictions ­ Negative handpinas were also made (as at Cheviot) 5


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