SCI 1101, Week 6 notes
SCI 1101, Week 6 notes SCI 1101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Bagyi on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Science, Society & Environ I in Environmental Science at Kennesaw State University.
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Date Created: 10/01/16
POLS 1101 CHAPTER 2 NOTES • Chemistry: Studies types of matter along with how they interact. o How gases contribute to global climate change o How pollutants cause acid rain o Pesticide effects on health of wildlife and people o Water pollution o Wastewater treatment o Atmospheric ozone depletion o Energy issues • Matter: All materials in the universe that has mass and occupies space. • Law of conservation of matter o Says matter can be transformed from one type of substance into others, but it cannot be created or destroyed. • Element: A fundamental type of matter • Atom: The smallest components that maintain an element’s chemical properties • Protons: Positively charged particles • Neutrons: Lack an electrical charge • Atomic number: Number of protons in an element • Electrons: Negatively charged particles surrounding the nucleus • Atomic mass number : Number of protons and neutrons in nucleus • Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons • Ions: Atoms that gain or lose electrons become electrically charged ions. • Molecules: Combination of two or more atoms • Compound: A molecule composed of atoms of two or more different elements • Ionic compounds (Salts): An electron is transferred • Solutions: A mixture of substances with no chemical bonding o Atoms bond because of an attraction for each other’s electrons o In ionic bonds, electrons are transferred between atoms o In covalent bonds, electrons are shared between two atoms • Hydrogen bonds: Weakest bond, O2 from 1 H20 molecule attracts hydrogen atoms of another o Water’s strong cohesion allows transport of nutrients between elements • pH ranges from 0 to 14 • Acidic: pH <7 • Basic: pH >7 • Neutral: pH = 7 o A substance with a pH of 6 contains 10 times as many hydrogen ions as a substance with pH of 7 • Organic compounds: Carbon (+ hydrogen) atoms joined by bonds and ma y include other elements • Polymers: Carbs, long chains of Carbon molecules, building blocks of life • More carbon = Solid • Less carbon = gas POLS 1101 CHAPTER 2 NOTES o Methane, butane, ethane, ect. • Macromolecules: Large sized molecules • Three types of polymers: o Proteins o Nucleic acid o Carbs • Lipids are not polymers o Fats and oils o Phospholipids o Steroids • Proteins: Long chains of amino acids o Provide structural support, store energy, transport material o Animals use protein to generate skin, hair, muscles, tendons • Nucleic acid: Long chains of nucleotides that contain sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base o DNA and RNA • Genes: Code for proteins that perform multiple things and certain functions • Carbs: Atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • Sugars: Simple carbs of 3 to 7 carbons • Starch: Stores energy in plants o Animals eat plants to get starch • Chitin forms shells of insects and crustaceans • Cellulose is in cell walls of plants • Energy: The capicaty to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter • Potential energy: Energy of position • Kinetic energy: Energy of motion • Chemical energy: Energy held within the bonds of chemicals • 2nd law of thermodynamics: Energy changes from a more -ordered to a less-ordered state • Autotrophs: Organisms that produce their own food • Photosynthesis • Chlorophyll: Light-absorbing pigment • Light reaction: Splits water by using solar energy • Calvin Cycle: Links carbon atoms
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