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Cognitive Science Notes on Philosophy

by: Sonia Ramirez

Cognitive Science Notes on Philosophy Cogs 001

Marketplace > University of California - Merced > Cogs 001 > Cognitive Science Notes on Philosophy
Sonia Ramirez
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These notes are made up of what was taught during lecture and discussion. Most importantly, they have information that will help answer some of the questions on the midterm study guide.
Introduction to Cognitive Science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sonia Ramirez on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Cogs 001 at University of California - Merced taught by Dale in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 10/01/16
▯ ( Midterm Study Guide Questions ) August 30 RECAP​: ▯Dominant view of the mind: The mind is like a computer, it is a computation, information processing system. ● The mind is a computation system because it has facts/statements used to reflect concepts → concept propositions IF-THEN RULES ● Receives INPUT (such as sound) → ​ rocessing system TRANSFORMATION OF INFORMATION(through computation→ OUTPUT EX: SIRI is a modern system of information processing. She is a concept that generates representations. ● COGNITIVE SCIENCE creates and critiques new theories. All 5 fields integrate to solve problems. ● ▯5 primary fields of cogs (specializations): ○ Philosophy ○ Linguistics ○ Psychology ○ Neuroscience ○ Computer Science ● HOW TO STUDY: ○ Brain Imaging (MRI) ○ Behavior (emotions, how fast are questions answered etc.) ○ Language ○ Computer Models (created to test theories to see if it produces human behavior) EXAMPLES: Integration of Fields: 1.If a person can’t form new memories dues to a stroke etc. then systems are created to assist throughout everyday life. 2.Blend of fields ▯ neuropsychology = behavior+brain 3.Creates: UX/ human-computer interaction (HCI), ECHO AL (Alexa) (through right fusion of linguistics and compsci. Looks at brain waves (mix of computer and neuroscience) 4. Creates 100% quality of life PHILOSOPHY 1: HISTORY: ▯ Oldest Discipline of cogs. Philosophy= love of wisdom Prominent in the 500-350 BCE in Greece. Athens etc. Sig figs: Plato and Aristotle ▯ METHOD: Taking ideas apart and arguing/ discussing them. The field of cogs that creates and critiques theories; describes and solves problems. 1 MAKEUP OF PHILOSOPHY : Metaphysics: (above physics) Composition of the universe. Physical. What makes up the universe? Epistemology: How do we know what is out there? How do we get our knowledge and beliefs, etc.? What is mental stuff composed of? Monism+Physicalism win. Monism Dualism ● There’s one type of stuff that ● There’s two types of stuff; Physical organizes stuff and Mental ● 99% of all modern cog scientist are ○ They are their own area, monist, trying to figure out the separate from eachother physical composition of the mind. ● How do mental and physical relate? ● Famous Dualist: Descartes (1600’s) Idealism​: everything is mental (there’s a lot of problems w/ this area) (Views that the independence of physical illusion) Solipsism:​ your mental states are the only ones(mine exist) Physicalism​: everything is physical (mental is dependent on the physical) ▯Identity theor​ for any type of ​mental state there is a type of​ physical ​brain state (mental states are = physical states. being in pain(mental)= C-fibers being stimulated (physical) ​Belief → Neural State ▯Eliminativism​:In the future, we will be able to eliminate​ any talk of “mental states” and simply talk about physical, neural states Neuro description; P.Churchland : beliefs= precise, scientific Ex: She has a​ belief​ that the coffee smells wonderful. 2 eliminate ⬇ Reward networks→​are activated after​→activation of olfactory receptors ▯Emergentism: ​ ​ here are different ways of describing ,mental processing in human minds​. But we can also recognize that certain mental abilities can be described as emerging from the operation of the brain . These mental processes can be described as their own kind of “stuff”. Mental dynamics (beliefs) ↑ (emergence) Dynamics of brain and body ▯Functionalism:​ functional categories are kinds of stuff that are ​united because of what they do​ ​not ​what they are made of.​ Ex: the mental categories are functional categories, it doesn't matter if they are implemented by the brain or not, what matters is what they do. (mind can be in all sorts of physical implementations. Ex: brains, computers) Intelligent behavior: being able to learn and process in order to know ON GOING DEBATE: ▯Folk Psychology​: the traditional set of concepts we tend to use to describe mental processes: beliefs, decisions, ideas thoughts. ▯Relation to eliminativism: folk concepts are too silly to be science, we will ​eliminate​ these Concepts. Relation to identity theory: we will equate folk concepts with brain states. Philosophy 2: September 1 Recap: ● Disciplines of cogs: debate, discussion, writing, argument ● Mental is fundamentally linked to the neural ○ became evident in the 1800’s ○ Broca’s Aphasia: brain damage the makes language a struggle) 3 ● Physicalism: Identity Theory, sections of the​ ​beliefs, desire, or ideas ● Physicalism: Eliminativism, does not believe,​ eliminates​, beliefs, desires, ideas ○ Churchland believes we should use more neural/ scientific words in science ● Physicalism:Emergentism,(causes)​ mergence​ of, beliefs,desires,ideas ○ Ex: m​usical therapy for aphasia may help re-establish the neural dynamics that support re-emergence of language processes ● Dualism vs. emergentism ○ Recognizes the brain is the root properties of physical things. You don’t have to be a dualist to be an emergentist. ● Arguments: ○ Intelligence can emerge in other kinds of systems (minds). ○ Other minds are not made of human brains (animals,silicon) ● ▯ THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: behavioral input-output mapping (goes in, one comes out) ○ FUNCTIONALISM: having a “mind” or having “intelligence” is not about having any particular physical stuff but instead it is about having the ----------------- Right set of input ➔ mapping output➔ Right set of output -learns from the world and its environment ▯SEARLE'S ATTACK ON FUNCTIONALISM: Chinese Room ● It is just following a set of input- output rules ● Experience and consciousness leads to intelligence ● TODAY: Functionalism + thought experiment


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