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Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Week 6, Chapter 5 Notes

by: Madison Lovegren

Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Week 6, Chapter 5 Notes Biol 1012

Marketplace > University of Northern Iowa > Biology > Biol 1012 > Biology 1012 Life The Natural World Week 6 Chapter 5 Notes
Madison Lovegren

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All the main points of Chapter 5 in the textbook
Life: The Natural World
Barton L Bergquist
Class Notes
Biology, terrestrial, Environment
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Lovegren on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1012 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Barton L Bergquist in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Life: The Natural World in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Chapter 5 ­ The Terrestrial Environment 5.1 ­ Life on Land Imposes Unique Constraints Desiccation ­ when something that usually contains moisture is dried out completely  This has been the biggest constraint imposed by terrestrial living environments Water Balance ­ when organisms must contain a balance of water between themselves and  their surrounding environment   Certain plants have evolved different cells to prevent water loss as they have adapted to  terrestrial life The need to remain erect in a terrestrial environment has resulted in strong evolution of  structural materials  Giant kelp can stay standing in water due to the gas­filled bladders in each blade of the  plant, but when taken out of water, they cannot support their own weight  However, a tree that is normally in a terrestrial environment can remain standing on its  own Variations in temperature and precipitation are also part of a terrestrial environment  These have a short term effect on metabolic processes and a long term effect on the  evolution and distribution of terrestrial life (plant and animal)  Results in distinct patterns of terrestrial ecosystems 5.2 ­ Plant Cover Influences the Vertical Distribution of Light  The amount of light that gets through a canopy and reach the ground varies with both  the quantity and location of the leaves  As you move from the top of the canopy to the bottom, light decreases because of the  cumulation of leaves and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) Leaf Area Index (LAI) ­ the area of leaves per unit of ground area  The amount of light reaching the ground varies with the seasons  Only about 1­5% of light reaches the ground  Sunflecks on the forest floor enable plants to endure shaded conditions 5.3 ­ Soil is the Foundation Upon Which All Terrestrial Life Depends  Soil is the medium for all plant growth  Also the main factor controlling fate of water in terrestrial environments  Nature’s recycling system (waste products are broken down)  Habitat for small mammals all the way to microbial life Soil is difficult to define, but one known thing is that it is a living system full of small animals,  fungi, and bacteria Regolith ­ unconsolidated layer of debris over the hard, unweathered rock  Soil is formed at this interface between rock and air 5.4 ­ The Formation of Soil Begins with Weathering  Formation of soil begins with weathering of rocks and their minerals  Mechanical weathering (also called physical weathering) ­ when water, wind and  temperature break down rock  Chemical weathering ­ the activity of soil organisms the acids they produce, and  rainwater break down primary minerals 5.5 ­ Soil Formation Involves 5 Interrelated Factors Five interdependent factors: 1. Parent material 2. Climate 3. Biotic factors ­ plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi 4. Topography ­ influences the amount of water that enters the soil and rates of erosion 5. Time ­ required for full development of distinctive soils Parent material ­ material form which soil develops  Physical characteristics and chemical composition of the parent material play an  important role in determination of soil properties, especially during the early stages Leaching ­ movement of solutes through the soil 5.6 ­ Soils Have Certain Distinguishing Characteristics Soil differs in the physical properties of texture, color, and depth  Color has little direct effect on how a soil functions, but it can be used to relate chemical  and physical properties  Soil texture is the proportion of different sized soil particles ­ silt, sand, and clay  Texture is largely determined by parent material, also influenced by soil forming process  Soil depth varies across landscape, depending on slope, weathering, vegetation, and  parent material 5.7 ­ The Soil Body Has Horizontal Layers of Horizon  Soil develops in horizons (layers)  Four horizons are commonly recognized, but that doesn’t mean that they are all present  in every type of soil  O ­ organic layer (or horizon)  A horizon (topsoil) o Characterized by accumulation of organic matter  B horizon (subsoil) in which mineral materials accumulate  C horizon ­ unconsolidated material under the subsoil 5.8 ­ Moisture­Holding Capacity Is an Essential Feature of Soils Saturated ­ when water exceeds what the pore space in the soil can hold Field capacity ­ when water fills all the pore spaces and is held there by capillary forces Capillary water ­ water held between soil particles by capillary forces Wilting Point ­ when moisture levels decrease to a point at which plants can no longer extract  water Available Water Capacity ­ amount of water retained by the soil between field capacity and  wilting point 5.9 ­ Ion Exchange Capacity Is Important to Soil Fertility  Soil particles, especially clay particles and organic matter, are important to nutrient  availability and cation exchange capacity of soil ­ the number negatively charged sites  on soil particles that can attract positively charged ions  Cations are in a state of equilibrium 5.10 ­ Soil Formation Processes Form Different Soils 5 main soil forming processes: 1. Laterization ­ humid environments, tropical, subtropical regions 2. Podzolization ­ cool, moist climates 3. Calcification ­ evaporation and water uptake by plants exceed precipitation 4. Salinization ­ similar to calcification, but in much drier climates 5. Gleization ­ areas with high rainfall and poor water drainage


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