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Chapter 20

by: Raven Hamilton

Chapter 20 ASTR-1010-01

Raven Hamilton
Clayton State
GPA 3.73

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About this Document

Overview notes from in class discussion of Chapter 20
Solar System Astronomy
Bram Boroson
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR-1010-01 at Clayton State University taught by Bram Boroson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Solar System Astronomy in Arts and Sciences at Clayton State University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 20 Notes In­class Notes:  Nationalistic Revolts in Latin America­ Haiti (1804), Mexico (1810), Augustin de  st Iturbide: 1  emperor of Mexico (1822­1823), Argentina: Jose de San Martin, Venezuela:  Simon Bolivar.  These revolutionaries influenced each other. One country would throw off their European rulers, and other nations would be inspired to follow in their footsteps.   Bolivar and San Martin­ Liberation of Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru under Bolivar. San Martin’s forces defeated the Spanish in Chile. Bolivar’s defeated the Spanish in Peru.  Monroe Doctrine in 1823.  Monroe Doctrine­ states that each nation will remain to their territory.  19  Century Latin America­ Foreign investment in Latin American countries increased  significantly following their independence. It was a time of great prosperity in the region. Upper class Europeans retained a tight control over political power. After independence,  Latin American economies dominated by the British. Land was the basis for wealth,  social prestige, and political power.  Political Change in Latin America­ Slavery was abolished in 1888. Brazil was the last  western country to formally abolish slavery in 1888. On the heels of these revolutions, in  some areas, there was a continuation of the revolution.   Buenos Aires­ the Paris of South America  Porfirio Diaz­ Mexican ruler (1876­1910).  Mexican Revolution (1910­1920)­ Led by Emiliano Zapata. Was mostly a peasant  revolution. Zapata urged his peasant followers to size estates of the Mexican elite. This  revolution devastated Mexico economically and they have never really been able to  recover.  United States­ Suffrage extended to almost all adult white males during the pthsidency th of Andrew Jackson (1827­1829). Slavery was abolished with the 13 , 14 , and 15   amendments. The 13  amendment abolished slavery, the 14  makes former slaves  citizens of America, and the 15  gives former male slaves the right to vote. Civil War  lasted from 1861 to 1865, during which president Lincoln delivered the Emancipation  Proclamation on January 1, 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation releases all slaves in  states of rebellion from the bondage of slavery; the issue with this was that the slave  states that were still apart of the union did not have to follow this proclamation. The  United States foreign policy after 1890 was characterized by expansion of American  power into Pacific and Caribbean. The Samoan Islands were the first important American colony. By 1900, the U.S. is the world’s richest nation and the greatest industrial power.  Canada­ After a number of rebellions in 1837, the British began to seek ways to satisfy  Canadian demands for self­government. In 1867, British Parliament established the  Dominion of Canada. John Macdonald was the first prime minister and Wilfred Laurier  smoothed relations between Canada’s English and French speaking populations.   Mass Society­ creation of new mass leisure activities to entertain and divert urban  populations. Women in working­class families accustomed to hard work, beginning at 9  or 10. Availability of low­wage servants freed middle class women from household labor. Birth control became more popular. Great Britain was the first nation to grant women the  right to control their own property. Teaching was the first male0dominated occupation to  be entered by women.  Clara Barton­ a nurse in the U.S., an early leader in the drive to professionalize nursing  for women.   Emmeline Pankhurst­ radical suffragist in England demanded votes for women.  Norway­ first European nation to grant women the right to vote in 1913.  Bertha von Suttner­ received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905 and the author of Lay Down  Your Arms.   Romanticism­ term cuts across visual arts, music, architecture, and literature.  Romanticism emphasized a focus on a feeling emotion, and imagination. Central  characteristics of Romantic painting include the desire to create art that showed artist’s  inner feelings. Key writers during this era include Mary Shelley (Frankenstein) and  Edgar Allen Poe.  Louis Pasteur­ discovered the germ theory of disease.  Charles Darwin­ came up with a theory of evolution that stated all living things are  involved in the struggle to survive (survival of the fittest).  Social Darwinism­ groups begin to take Darwin’s theory to extremes and apply it to  social issues of the time. This is seen in the debate about the superiority of certain races  over others. Specifically, Germans would use this to claim their superiority as Aryans  over Jews, blacks, and other minorities.   Albert Einstein­ creator of the relativity theory: E=mc2, began the atomic age. Relativity theory says that time and space are not absolute, everything is relative to the observer.  This formula becomes the basis for the nuclear age.  Sigmund Freud­ challenged nineteenth century belief in progress with his stress on  irrational and unconscious forces operating in the mind.   Impressionism­ Berthe Morisot.  Post Impressionism­ Vincent van Gogh.  Cubism­ Pablo Picasso.


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