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POLS 1101, Week 6 Notes

by: Melanie Bagyi

POLS 1101, Week 6 Notes POLS 1101

Melanie Bagyi

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Notes from week 6
American Government
James Martinez
Class Notes
American Government
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Bagyi on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by James Martinez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at Kennesaw State University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
POLS  1101  Notes   Week  6   The  Federalist  Papers   • Federalists:   o Federation   o Urban  Dwellers   o Virginia  Plan   o Representative  government   o “Science”  of  politics   o Supported  ratification   • Antifederalists   o Confederation   o Farming   o Rural  inhabitants   o New  Jersey  Plan   o Direct  democracy   o A  bill  of  rights   o Opposed  ratification   • Series  of  essays  by  three  founding  fathers   o Alexander  Hamilton,  James  Madison,  John  Jay   o Used  suitanims:  Fake  Names   • Antifederalists  would  stop  opposing  the  federalists  only  if  Congress  passed  a   bill  of  rights  to  protect  the  people   • Civil  Rights:  What  government  can  do  for  the  people   • Civil  liberties:  What  the  government  cannot  do  to  the  people   • Purpose   o Written  by  Hamilton,  Madison,  and  Jay  to  argue  for  ratification  of  the   US  constitution   o Used  the  pen  name,  “Publius”  which  stood  for  the  public  man   § (Publius  Valerius)   o Explained  “scientific”  principles  of  a  republican  form  of  government   • Comparing  10  and  51   o Federalist  10:   § Factions  outside  government   § Federalism   § Vertical  division   § Fear  of  majorities   § Cures:  Pluralism,  Overlapping  government,  Compromise   o Federalist  51:   § Factions  inside  government   § Separation  of  powers   § Horizontal  division   § Fears  of  elitism   § Cures:  Pluralism,  Fragmented  government,  Auxiliary   precautions       POLS  1101  Notes   Week  6   • Conclusion   o Solving  the  perennial  political  problems   § Power  is  divided  into  many  hands   § Democracy  is  “rehabilitated”  by  science   o The  results:  Balancing  liberty  and  equality   § Liberty  –  yes;  licentiousness  (Liberty  misused,  infringing   someone  else’s  liberty)  –  no   § Channel  passions  into  policymaking   § “Auxiliary  precautions”  are  in  place   Federalism:  A  Science  of  Politics   • Definitions:   o Sovereignty:  Exercising  political  power   § Confederation   § Federal  system   § Unitary  government   o Federalism:  Two  or  more  governments  exercise  power  over  the   same  people  and  territory   • Theories  of  Federalism   o Nation-­‐Centered  Federalism   § Necessary  and  proper  clause   § The  commerce  clause   § The  supremacy  clause   o State-­‐Centered  Federalism   § 10  amendment   • Necessary  and  Proper  Clause  (Elastic  Clause):  Article  1  Section  8   o McCulloch  v.  Maryland   § Congress  could  create  a  national  bank  under  its  implied   powers   § National  government  supersedes  state  power  when  a  conflict   occurs   § Daniel  Webster  argued  for  the  bank;  Luther  Martin  argued  for   Maryland  (Wanted  to  tax  the  national  bank)   • Chief  justice  John  Marshall  ruled  for  McCulloch   • “Power  to  tax  is  the  power  to  destroy”   • The  (Interstate)  Commerce  Clause:  Article  1  Section  8   o Gibbons  v.  Ogden   § Steamboat  case  gave  congress  broad  power  to  regulate   interstate  commerce   o U.S.  v.  Lopez,  Printz  v.  U.S.,  U.S.  v.  Harrison  –  Interstate  commerce   power  is  limited   § Court  puts  breaks  on  Congress’s  commerce  clause  case   • The  (National)  Supremacy  Clause:  Article  6  Section  2   o Federal  Preemption   § Express  –  stated   § Implied  –  Not  stated   POLS  1101  Notes   Week  6   o Mandates  (Requirements  government  puts  on  states)   o Restraints  (Must  refrain  from  doing)   • 10  Amendment   o Powers  that  are  not  granted  to  the  national  government  are  reserved   to  the  states  and  to  the  people   o Theory  of  Nullification:   § State’s  rights  theory  championed  by  John  C.  Calhoun;  states   could  vote  to  not  abide  by  National  government’s  rules;   rejected  after  civil  war   The  History  of  Federalism   • Dual  Federalism   o Clear  differences  between  state  and  national  powers,  functions,  and   responsibilities   o National  government  has  enumerated  powers   o National  government  has  limited  constitutional  purposes   o Each  unit  –  nation  and  state  is  sovereign   o Characterized  by  tension,  not  cooperation,  between  nation  and  states   • Cooperative  Federalism   o Power,  functions,  and  responsibilities  can  be  shared  by  both  national   and  state  government   • “New”  Federalism      


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