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Manufacturing Processes, Chapter 10 notes (Metal Casting)

by: Kirin Anandsongvit

Manufacturing Processes, Chapter 10 notes (Metal Casting) MIE 375

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Engineering > MIE 375 > Manufacturing Processes Chapter 10 notes Metal Casting
Kirin Anandsongvit
GPA 3.2
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Notes from Chapter 10 off the readings and lecture for MIE 375, Manufacturing Processes. Chapter 10 introduces the fundamentals of metal casting including the heating processes as well as the cooli...
Manufacturing Processes
Dr. Bernd F. Schliemann
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirin Anandsongvit on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MIE 375 at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Bernd F. Schliemann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Manufacturing Processes in Engineering at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Fundamentals  of  Metal  Casting   -­‐ The  starting  material  is  either  a  liquid  or  is  in  a  highly  plastic  condition,  and  a   part  is  created  through  solidification  of  the  material.   o Casting  and  molding  processes  dominate  this  category  of  shaping   operations.     -­‐ Casting  is  a  process  in  which  molten  metal  flows  by  gravity  or  other  force   into  a  mold  where  it  solidifies  in  the  shape  of  the  mold  cavity.     -­‐ A  variety  of  shape  casting  methods  are  available:     o Can  be  used  to  create  complex  part  geometries,  including  both   external  and  internal  shapes.     o Can  be  used  to  create  very  large  parts.     o Can  be  performed  on  any  metal  that  can  be  heated  to  the  liquid  state.     o Some  casting  methods  are  quite  suited  to  mass  production.     -­‐ Overview  of  Casting  Technology   o Casting  is  usually  carried  out  in  a  foundry.     § It  is  a  factory  for  making  molds,  melting  and  handling  metal  in   molten  form,  performing  the  casting  process,  and  cleaning  the   finished  casting.     o The  mold  contains  a  cavity  whose  geometry  determines  the  shape  of   the  cast  part.     § Actual  size  and  shape  of  the  cavity  must  be  oversized  to  allow   for  shrinkage  that  occurs  in  the  metal  during  solidification  and   cooling.     § Different  metals  undergo  different  amounts  of  shrinkage,  so   the  mold  cavity  must  be  designed  for  the  particular  metal  to  be   cast  if  dimensional  accuracy  is  critical.     o To  accomplish  a  casting  operation:   § The  metal  is  first  heated  to  a  temperature  high  enough  to   completely  transform  it  into  a  liquid  state.     § Open  mold:  the  liquid  metal  is  simply  poured  until  it  fills  the   open  cavity.     § Closed  mold:  a  passageway,  called  the  gating  system,  is   provided  to  permit  the  molten  metal  to  flow  from  outside  the   mold  into  the  cavity.     § When  the  temperature  drops  sufficiently,  the  metal  begins  to   cool  and  solidification  begins.     o Casting  Processes  divide  into  tow  broad  categories:   § Expendable  mold:  the  mold  in  which  the  molten  metal   solidifies  must  be  destroyed  in  order  to  remove  the  casting.     § Permanent  mold:  One  that  can  be  used  over  and  over  to   produce  many  castings.     o Sand  Casting  Molds   § By  fat  the  most  important  casting  process.     § The  mold  consists  of  two  halves:  cope  and  drag.     • The  cope  is  the  upper  half  of  the  mold  while  the  drag  is   the  lower  half.   • The  two  halves  of  the  mold  separate  at  the  parting  line.     § Contained  in  a  box  called  a  flask.     § The  gating  system  in  a  casting  mold  is  the  channel,  or  network   of  channels,  by  which  molten  metal  flows  into  the  cavity  from   outside  the  mold.     -­‐ Heating  and  Pouring   o The  metal  must  flow  into  all  regions  before  solidifying.     § The  pouring  temperature  is  the  temperature  of  the  molten   metal  as  it  is  introduced  into  the  mold.     § Pouring  rate  refers  to  the  volumetric  rate  at  which  the  molten   metal  is  poured  into  the  mold.     • If  the  rate  is  too  slow,  the  metal  will  chill  and  freeze   before  filling  the  cavity.     § The  molten  metal  flow  characteristics  are  often  described  by   the  term  fluidity,  a  measure  of  the  capability  of  the  metal  to   flow  into  and  fill  the  mold  before  freezing.     • As  viscosity  increases,  fluidity  decreases;  the  two  are   inverses  of  each  other.     -­‐ Solidification  and  Cooling   o Issues  associated  with  solidification  include  the  time  for  a  metal  to   freeze,  shrinkage,  directional  solidification,  and  riser  design.     o The  solidification  process  differs  depending  on  whether  the  metal  is  a   pure  element  or  an  alloy.     § A  pure  metal  solidifies  at  a  constant  temperature  equal  to  its   freezing  point,  which  is  the  same  as  its  melting  point.     • The  total  solidification  time  is  the  time  taken  between   pouring  and  complete  solidification.     • The  rate  at  which  freezing  proceeds  depends  on  heat   transfer  into  the  mold,  as  well  as  the  thermal  properties   of  the  metal.     § Most  allows  freeze  over  a  temperature  range  rather  than  at  a   single  temperature.     • Freezing  begins  at  the  temperature  indicated  by  the   liquidus  and  is  completed  when  the  solidus  is  reached.     § A  eutectic  composition  is  a  particular  composition  in  an  alloy   system  from  which  the  solidus  and  liquidus  are  at  the  same   temperature.     o A  casting  with  a  higher  volume  to  surface  area  ratio  will  cool  and   solidify  more  slowly  than  one  with  a  lower  ratio.     o Solidification  shrinkage  occurs  in  nearly  all  metals  because  the  solid   phase  has  a  higher  density  than  the  liquid  phase.     §  


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