Lifespan notes week 7
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years 9/26/16 Physical Development: Nutrition, Drugs and the Brain • Nutrition o Provide a variety of right choices o Obesity is a growing issue- related to decline in cognitive ability, long- term obesity (which is associated with depression, diabetes, heart disease, etc.) • Psychopharmacological drugs in kids o Antidepressants/stimulants o Antipsychotics • The growing brain o Increased thickness of the corpus callosum o Brain lateralization- differentiated, specialized § Left hemisphere- more verbal (language), speaking, reading, thinking § Right- nonverbal, spatial relationships, recognition of patterns, music, emotional expression o Myelination continues- may be related to increased attention span o Increase in motor skills § Myelination is one reason § Kids are very active is the second reason (highest at age 3 than at any other time during life) Intellectual Development • Piaget: Preoperational thinking (2-7) o Use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, use of concepts increases o Very curious and begin to use primitive reasoning (though fail to know how they know what they know) o Limitations § Centration: concentrating on one aspect of something and ignoring other aspects § Example: buttons • Visual image dominates their thinking (an early example of conservation) § Conservation: knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects • Illustrated by classic juice glass experiment • Problems with conservations occur because of the centration issue § Another centration issue is animism: giving living characteristics to nonliving objects- might focus on its movement (such as a leaf or a car) Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years 9/28/16 Intellectual Development (cont.) • Piaget cont. o Limitations cont. § Egocentrism: don’t take into account the viewpoints of others physically, in terms of thoughts, feelings, etc. • Example: hide and seek (pillow over face- I can’t see you so you can’t see me), books, mountain, etc. § Newer research again shows that kids have greater capabilities than Piaget realized • Information Processing approach o Attention: § Makes advances in executive attention (planning, monitoring progress, etc.) § Sustained attention (focused, extended engagement) increases § Memory: big increases in short-term memory (in part because of rehearsal) § Accuracy of long-term memory? (interview techniques and…) • Our memory of events is really bad- even as adults • Child to the hospital example in class • Important in interviewing for abuse o Numerals: preschoolers can count- even if not always correctly, it will usually be consistent § Also simple addition, subtraction § How can you enhance mathematical skills? Count out loud (go get me 2 apples, oh we need 2 more. Now how many do we have, etc.) • Vygotsky o Kids learn in the context of social interaction o Zone of proximal development: level at which child can almost perform a task independently- and can with assistance § Scaffolding: the assistance provided (usually a small hint) o Vygotsky emphasized the importance of language- that they use it to communicate and also to solve tasks § They often use “private speech” in solving problems (basically like talking to yourself to figure a problem out) • Language and Learning o Explosion in terms of words: 14,000 by age 6 o Fast mapping: learn after limited exposure o Invented spelling: requires high level of phonological awareness (not necessarily paying attention to spelling and spacing and grammar, but just getting them to write) § Associated with good spelling and reading later o Television § Preschooler watches 21 hours a week § American Academy of Pediatrics recommends NO TV under 2 years old; no more than 1-2 hours a day over 2 years old Chapter 8: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood 9/30/16 Forming a sense of Self • Self-efficacy: Erikson (ages 3-6 initiative vs. guilt) o “I can do it” vs. guilt if fail o Want to act independently, but not always successful or conflicts with conscience • Self-concept o Categorical self: preschooler can describe self in terms of visible characteristics: what they like, what they look like, whom they play with, etc. (not inner enduring qualities) • Emotional self: developing increased emotional regulation- as control shifts from parents to child (internalizes) o Parents can help this through emotion coaching o Kids who have better emotional control are more popular with peers • Social self: increased development of social scripts o In life play (“I’m a good helper” “I’ll be the mommy, you be the daddy”) • Gendered self o Gender identity: by age 2 they correctly label as boys/girls o Gender stability: by age 4 they realize they will stay the same sex for life o Gender constancy: takes until about age 6 or so to establish; notion that someone stays the same gender despite hair length, clothes, etc. • During early preschool years, pretty rigid about gender-appropriate behavior