New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

week 1 genetics

by: MelLem

week 1 genetics BIOL 336

Marketplace > Simmons College > BIOL 336 > week 1 genetics
Simmons College
GPA 3.4
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Genetics

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Genetics notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

genetics week one intro
Dr. Lopilato
Class Notes




Popular in Genetics

Popular in Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by MelLem on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 336 at Simmons College taught by Dr. Lopilato in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


Reviews for week 1 genetics


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/02/16
Genetics Biology 336 – Fall 2016 Lecture 1: Thursday 9-8-16  Human Genome Project, HGP – Write o “project would create genomes, plan follows closed controversial meeting” o project not yet approved by the NIH o possibility to replace CRISPR-Cas for gene editing? o Genome – the complete DNA sequence of an organism.  What is CRISPR-Cas o Co-disovered by Dr. Jennifer Doudna, and Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier. o Known as the gene editing tool o Fix mutations in cells – gene editing. o CRISPR-Cas – a tool for gene editing, RNA based. Allows you ro make single nucleotide changes in the genome. Allows you to replace defected genes, however the drawback is that there is off target mutations associated with it.  What does our genome look like? o HGP – 99.9% same DNA sequence in everyone, only 4% encodes protein o exons- encode proteins Non-LTR retrotransposons Non-LTR retrotransposons  ENCODE and modENCODE projects o Encyclopedia of DNA Elements – ENCODE  Model organisms ENCODE – modENCODE o The aim – describe all functional elements in the human genome and in model organisms. o First released in 2012, second in 2014. Started in 2003 following the completion of the HGP in 2001. o 2012 claim : 80% of human genome has been assigned at least on biochemical function. o Function elements – sites on the DNA where the proteins bind.  Model Organisms o Six model organisms are typically used to help further develop an understanding of cellular biology, genetics, and many more topics in biology. o Model organisms are organisms with similar genome size and number or genes.  What does Genetics do? o Genotype  phenotype  Genotype – genetic composition, the DNA sequence  Phenotype- appearance of an organism due to its genotype. o Cloning organisms o Cloning genes o Altering genes, silencing genes, activating genes o Editing genes – CRISPR-Cas o Silenecing whole chromosomes – done at UMass Worcester Medical school july 17 , 2013.  DNA is the genetic material o Classical experiments  Griffith’s experiment  Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty o DNA is inherited – Hershey Chase experiment. o Structure of DNA was determined to be a double helix consisting of nucleotide sequences. AT GC o Griffith’s experiment:  Transformation – when living bacteria take up DNA from the environment and have a different phenotype. In the experiment you’re going from non- pathogenic to a pathogenic.  He injected living S cells into mice, and also living R cells, the S cells killed the mice, but a combination of the two killed the mouse that had originally only received the R cells and had survived.  Genes  Proteins o Inborn errors of metabolism can cause hereditary diseases o Proteins are encoded by genes o Defective proteins encode by mutant genes  Genes and Environment o Pleiotropy – one gene can affect more than one trait o Any trait can be affected by more than one gene – polygenic trait o Most traits are affected by environmental factors as well as by genes.  Chromosomal basis of inheritance o Mitosis o Meiosis o Chromosomes are duplicated in S phase before mitosis and meiosis.  Mitosis o Chromososmes are duplicated in S phase before mitosis o Each duplicated chromosome has 2 sister chromatids o Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate during metaphase. o Sister chromatids pull apart during anaphase of mitosis. o End result is 2 diploid daughter cells which occurs following cytokinesis which is the separation of the cell into new cells. o Goal is to create genetically identical cells – ie. Skin cells  Meiosis o Occurs in the ovaries and testes to produce eggs and sperm. o Reduces the number of chromosomes bu half 2N  N o Produces haploid gametes that differ genetically. o Goal is to create genetic variation among different organisms. Lecture 2: Tuesday 9-13-16  DNA is the genetic material o Classical experiments  Griffith’s experiment  Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty  DNA is inherited – Hershey chase experiment o Structure of DNA was deduced  Mendel o Had modern view of genetics  1) genes are discrete particles  2) Genes are inherited  3) Genes are responsible for traits o Genotype- genetic endowment – DNA – the sequence of genes o Phenotype – appearance of an organism due to its genotypic ratio.  Mendel’s Monohybrid results o Deduced that a 3:1 Ratio results in the F2 generation o Statistical test – Chi Squared analysis gives the probability that the variation was due to chance.  P > 5% means variation was due to chance and the deviation is NOT significant. Therefore the data supports a 3:1 ratio (hypothesis)  P < 5% means that the variation was not due to chance and the deviation IS significant. Therefore the data does not support a 3:1 ratio (hypothesis)  Mendel’s postulates o Genes are particles that come in pairs o Alleles are alternative forms of genes o Alleles segregate in the formation of gametes during meiosis o Genes move independently of each other o Gametes unite in random fertilization during meiosis  Explanation of Mendel’s postulates o An allele is an alternative form of the gene  Same allele WW or ww = homozygous  Difference alleles Ww = heterozygous o Intact alleles transmitted from generation to generation via gametes  Gametes = egg and sperm cells  Gamete carries just ONE allele on each gene W or w  Results of a monohybrid cross o F1 progeny all show dominant phenotype o See recessive phenotype in F2 progeny o 3 dominant : 1 recessive phenotypes seen in F2 progeny. o 1 WW : 2Ww : 1ww genotype ration in F2, which can be seen by examining the DNA of the SBEI gene.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.