New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Reload of notes chapter 6 Bio I Teacher Notes

by: Marla Notetaker

Reload of notes chapter 6 Bio I Teacher Notes BSC 2010

Marketplace > University of South Florida > Biology > BSC 2010 > Reload of notes chapter 6 Bio I Teacher Notes
Marla Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the previous notes of chapter 6 PLUS the other part of the lesson we had at the begging of the week
Biology I Cellular Processes
Dr. Eric M. Sikorski
Class Notes
cell communication, Cell, structure, DNA, ribosomes, nucleus, er, endoplasmic reticulum, genes, translation, transcription
25 ?




Popular in Biology I Cellular Processes

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marla Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Eric M. Sikorski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Biology I Cellular Processes in Biology at University of South Florida.


Reviews for Reload of notes chapter 6 Bio I Teacher Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 6 – A Tour of the Cell The Fundamental Units of Life  The Cell Theory:  o All organisms composed of cells o Cells are the smallest unit of life o All cells come from other cells Concept 6.1  How do we study cells – take it apart o Cell Fractionation: Used to be biochemically back in the day: look at the chemical  components of the cell o Centrifuges: spin around the solution and when centrifuged the heavier components of  the cells will fall at the bottom of the tube by the centrifugal force, leaving a pellet at the  bottom (the heavier components)…. If we are looking for smaller component it will be in  the supernate which is what its left on top o Homogenization: breaking up cells into smaller pieces  Mechanical – like a liquation… shop it up   Mild detergents – detergents will solubilize lipids of the cell membrane *If used STRONG detergents can cause proteins to denature*  Sonication – putting soundwaves with an instrument to use the vibration to break them.  Enzymes – they by themselves can break down specific components *Use enzymes to break CELL WALLS and then use another* Concept 6.2 I. Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Cells  Prokaryotes: bacteria and archaea o NOT a nucleus BUT a NUCEOID which has the DNA which is  ANCHORED to the cell membrane o Some bacteria have a Cell Wall o There are NO membrane bound organelles… meaning that everything  happens in the cytoplasm with no aid f smaller organelles (like ER)  Eukaryotes: animal, plant, fungi o DOES have membrane bound Organelles… they designate an specific  task to smaller organelles… which is why they are larger o As one increases the size of the cell the VOLUME increases MORE  than the surface area  Common Traits of both types of cells: o Cell Membranes: Determines what comes in and out of cell o DNA o Cytoplasm o Ribosomes  Diffusion: very fast in SHORT distance – the LARGER cells have more PROBLEM *Refer to picture 6.7 p.98 In Bio Book USF version* II. A Panoramic View of the Cell Eukaryotic Cell *Refer to page 100 and 101 in Bio USF* Concept 6.3 I. Nucleus  Protects DNA  Consists of: o Nuclear envelope nd o The 2  bilayer of the nucleus continues to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o Nuclear Pores: regulates the large pieces that go in/out of the nucleus o Nuclear lamina: rigidity, proteins line the inside of the nucleus to keep it  from membrane.  Mitochondria o Has its own DNA so it can replicate itself o It STILL needs DNA from the nucleus  Genome: all the DNA of an organism – divided into smaller pieces (chromosomes)  Chromatin: DNA + all associated proteins (we are NOT JUST talking abt DNA)  Nucleolus: ribosome biogenesis – create ribosomes   Genome: ALL Chromosomes  Gene: specific sequence of DNA that codes for RNA – a piece of DNA II. Ribosomes  Made of Proteins + RNA  Function: to create proteins  Found in cytoplasm and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Concept 6.4 I. ER  Edomem (Endomembrane system) o Nuclear envelope o Endoplasmic Reticulum o Golgi Apparatus o Lysosomes o Vacuoles Plasma Membrane a. Smooth ER  Lipid Synthesis  Some Carbohydrates Metabolism  Detoxification (get rid of dangerous materials which got inside the cells)  Store Calcium ions b. Rough ER  Synthesis of secreted or membrane bound proteins  Package products into vesicles for transport – typically goes to Golgi Apparatus, if  not it goes to the cell membrane, depends on the function of the product II. Golgi Apparatus  Cisternae: Tubes –membrane sacs nucleus  Orientation: the longer and curved out part goes inwards (received material on the  Cis)… the shorter strand is facing the outside of the cell (trans sends material away  Major Functions:  o Glycosylation: add sugar molecules to the proteins o Sorting: sending molecules where it needs to go III. Lysosomes  Membrane sacs of digestive enzymes  Low pH – acidic about a 5  Function: o Digest (phagocytosis) o Autophagy: recycle tis own material  ­breaking down damaged organelles  Acid hydrolysis:  IV. Vacuoles  Function: o Most of them are mechanisms of storage o Contractile (osmotic regulation) o Waste products (dumpster of the inside of the cell) – when cell cannot  process something (like heavy metals) Concept 6.5  Mitochondria – (oxidative) cellular respiration, create ATP  Chloroplasts – photosynthesis  Peroxisomes – oxidative organelles  I. Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts  Endosymbiont theory: “early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed and oxygen­ using non­photosynthetic prokaryotic cells +  Both bacteria and these 2 organelles create ATP using H  gradients found between  the 2 membranes… reproduce independently basically using binary fission   Mitochondria Structure o Cristae: folding of the inner membrane of the mitochondria  They increase the surface area – here are the ATP productors and  the more area the more ATP o Intermembrane space: space between the 2 membranes o Mitochondrial Matrix: space inside the inner membrane  Chloroplasts structure: o Thylakoids: pancake  Granum: stack of pancakes o Stroma o Plastids: Plant organelles involved in food production and storage II. Peroxisomes: Oxidation  Lipid metabolism (recycling) Concept 6.6 Cytoskeleton   Network od fibers inside the cell  Functions: o Provide structure o Provides anchoring to organelles o Provides Vesicle Transport  Components:  o Microtubules: made of tubulin – LARGEST of cytoskeleton  Hollow rods  Abt 25 nm  They make sheets of tubulin and when they reach a number they  fold on themselves  Function  Structure  Movement of organelles  Cell division  Chromosomes  Centrosome(MTOC) : space where centrioles are where all the  microtubules originate from  Have 2 centrioles placed at 90 degrees  Centrioles – consists of 9 triplets  Cilia and Flagella: o 9+2 microtubule arrangement – general structure  9 Dyneins surrounding 2 microtubules  Cross­links – keeps the cilia circular o Basal – anchored in the cell membrane *APICAL SURFACE facing the outside of the org* *BASAL SURFACE facing inside of the  organism* Ex. Skin, Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary o Dynein: moves flagella o Microfilaments: made of actin – SMALLEST – polymerize when they want  2 chains of actin twisted around each other  Create microvilli  Villi are the cilia around intestinal cells  Microvilli are the hairs around the villi  Cortex: under the membranes to prevent it from flexing too much  Muscles mobility (Contractions) – ASSOCIATED WITH MYOSIN  Shrink the muscle while pulling at the tendons in the origin  and the insertion  Filapodia (podia – feet): like memory, little feet connect  Give neurons plasticity (ability of the brain to adapt)  Lamellapodia  White BC – throw foot out and pull forward in the cell  membrane  Cytoplasmic streaming: in plants pulling stuff up defeating gravity o Intermediate Filaments   For most part looks the same place  Maintain the cell’s shape   Motor proteins: help to move materials across the cell o Take ATP and hydrolyze it and the chemical energy is transformed into  mechanical and these proteins carry the materials  Concept 6.7  Extracellular Matrix (ECM) made of glycoproteins   Tendons are made of fibroblasts – collagen I. Cell Wall  Distinguish plants from Animal cells  Made f cellulose  Fungi have Chitin, like cellulose, to provide shape  Bacteria have Peptidoglcan  The membranes of the cells have INTEGRINS used to attach it to the ECM o Mechanosensors­ proteins responding to mechanical sensors:  Touch sense II. Cell Junctions  Cells rarely touch o Some use ECM so separate each other o Muscle cells DO touch each other  Types of junction: o Tight junction: like stitches  Epithelial tissue: together so the materials and component doesn’t  slip though the junction o Desmosomes: like anchors – create like an electric current attracted to each  other… way STRONGER  Hemi­desmosomes: there is just one of them and it is attached to the ECM o Gap junction: used for communication  Each cell has a tube connecting to the other cell so they can interact  Cardiac muscle (heart): beat, and if they are all disconnected each  cell would beat at their own pace, however with the junction they  all beat at the same time


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.