Reload of notes chapter 6 Bio I Teacher Notes
Reload of notes chapter 6 Bio I Teacher Notes BSC 2010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marla Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Eric M. Sikorski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Biology I Cellular Processes in Biology at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 6 – A Tour of the Cell The Fundamental Units of Life The Cell Theory: o All organisms composed of cells o Cells are the smallest unit of life o All cells come from other cells Concept 6.1 How do we study cells – take it apart o Cell Fractionation: Used to be biochemically back in the day: look at the chemical components of the cell o Centrifuges: spin around the solution and when centrifuged the heavier components of the cells will fall at the bottom of the tube by the centrifugal force, leaving a pellet at the bottom (the heavier components)…. If we are looking for smaller component it will be in the supernate which is what its left on top o Homogenization: breaking up cells into smaller pieces Mechanical – like a liquation… shop it up Mild detergents – detergents will solubilize lipids of the cell membrane *If used STRONG detergents can cause proteins to denature* Sonication – putting soundwaves with an instrument to use the vibration to break them. Enzymes – they by themselves can break down specific components *Use enzymes to break CELL WALLS and then use another* Concept 6.2 I. Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotes: bacteria and archaea o NOT a nucleus BUT a NUCEOID which has the DNA which is ANCHORED to the cell membrane o Some bacteria have a Cell Wall o There are NO membrane bound organelles… meaning that everything happens in the cytoplasm with no aid f smaller organelles (like ER) Eukaryotes: animal, plant, fungi o DOES have membrane bound Organelles… they designate an specific task to smaller organelles… which is why they are larger o As one increases the size of the cell the VOLUME increases MORE than the surface area Common Traits of both types of cells: o Cell Membranes: Determines what comes in and out of cell o DNA o Cytoplasm o Ribosomes Diffusion: very fast in SHORT distance – the LARGER cells have more PROBLEM *Refer to picture 6.7 p.98 In Bio Book USF version* II. A Panoramic View of the Cell Eukaryotic Cell *Refer to page 100 and 101 in Bio USF* Concept 6.3 I. Nucleus Protects DNA Consists of: o Nuclear envelope nd o The 2 bilayer of the nucleus continues to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o Nuclear Pores: regulates the large pieces that go in/out of the nucleus o Nuclear lamina: rigidity, proteins line the inside of the nucleus to keep it from membrane. Mitochondria o Has its own DNA so it can replicate itself o It STILL needs DNA from the nucleus Genome: all the DNA of an organism – divided into smaller pieces (chromosomes) Chromatin: DNA + all associated proteins (we are NOT JUST talking abt DNA) Nucleolus: ribosome biogenesis – create ribosomes Genome: ALL Chromosomes Gene: specific sequence of DNA that codes for RNA – a piece of DNA II. Ribosomes Made of Proteins + RNA Function: to create proteins Found in cytoplasm and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Concept 6.4 I. ER Edomem (Endomembrane system) o Nuclear envelope o Endoplasmic Reticulum o Golgi Apparatus o Lysosomes o Vacuoles Plasma Membrane a. Smooth ER Lipid Synthesis Some Carbohydrates Metabolism Detoxification (get rid of dangerous materials which got inside the cells) Store Calcium ions b. Rough ER Synthesis of secreted or membrane bound proteins Package products into vesicles for transport – typically goes to Golgi Apparatus, if not it goes to the cell membrane, depends on the function of the product II. Golgi Apparatus Cisternae: Tubes –membrane sacs nucleus Orientation: the longer and curved out part goes inwards (received material on the Cis)… the shorter strand is facing the outside of the cell (trans sends material away Major Functions: o Glycosylation: add sugar molecules to the proteins o Sorting: sending molecules where it needs to go III. Lysosomes Membrane sacs of digestive enzymes Low pH – acidic about a 5 Function: o Digest (phagocytosis) o Autophagy: recycle tis own material breaking down damaged organelles Acid hydrolysis: IV. Vacuoles Function: o Most of them are mechanisms of storage o Contractile (osmotic regulation) o Waste products (dumpster of the inside of the cell) – when cell cannot process something (like heavy metals) Concept 6.5 Mitochondria – (oxidative) cellular respiration, create ATP Chloroplasts – photosynthesis Peroxisomes – oxidative organelles I. Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Endosymbiont theory: “early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed and oxygen using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cells + Both bacteria and these 2 organelles create ATP using H gradients found between the 2 membranes… reproduce independently basically using binary fission Mitochondria Structure o Cristae: folding of the inner membrane of the mitochondria They increase the surface area – here are the ATP productors and the more area the more ATP o Intermembrane space: space between the 2 membranes o Mitochondrial Matrix: space inside the inner membrane Chloroplasts structure: o Thylakoids: pancake Granum: stack of pancakes o Stroma o Plastids: Plant organelles involved in food production and storage II. Peroxisomes: Oxidation Lipid metabolism (recycling) Concept 6.6 Cytoskeleton Network od fibers inside the cell Functions: o Provide structure o Provides anchoring to organelles o Provides Vesicle Transport Components: o Microtubules: made of tubulin – LARGEST of cytoskeleton Hollow rods Abt 25 nm They make sheets of tubulin and when they reach a number they fold on themselves Function Structure Movement of organelles Cell division Chromosomes Centrosome(MTOC) : space where centrioles are where all the microtubules originate from Have 2 centrioles placed at 90 degrees Centrioles – consists of 9 triplets Cilia and Flagella: o 9+2 microtubule arrangement – general structure 9 Dyneins surrounding 2 microtubules Crosslinks – keeps the cilia circular o Basal – anchored in the cell membrane *APICAL SURFACE facing the outside of the org* *BASAL SURFACE facing inside of the organism* Ex. Skin, Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary o Dynein: moves flagella o Microfilaments: made of actin – SMALLEST – polymerize when they want 2 chains of actin twisted around each other Create microvilli Villi are the cilia around intestinal cells Microvilli are the hairs around the villi Cortex: under the membranes to prevent it from flexing too much Muscles mobility (Contractions) – ASSOCIATED WITH MYOSIN Shrink the muscle while pulling at the tendons in the origin and the insertion Filapodia (podia – feet): like memory, little feet connect Give neurons plasticity (ability of the brain to adapt) Lamellapodia White BC – throw foot out and pull forward in the cell membrane Cytoplasmic streaming: in plants pulling stuff up defeating gravity o Intermediate Filaments For most part looks the same place Maintain the cell’s shape Motor proteins: help to move materials across the cell o Take ATP and hydrolyze it and the chemical energy is transformed into mechanical and these proteins carry the materials Concept 6.7 Extracellular Matrix (ECM) made of glycoproteins Tendons are made of fibroblasts – collagen I. Cell Wall Distinguish plants from Animal cells Made f cellulose Fungi have Chitin, like cellulose, to provide shape Bacteria have Peptidoglcan The membranes of the cells have INTEGRINS used to attach it to the ECM o Mechanosensors proteins responding to mechanical sensors: Touch sense II. Cell Junctions Cells rarely touch o Some use ECM so separate each other o Muscle cells DO touch each other Types of junction: o Tight junction: like stitches Epithelial tissue: together so the materials and component doesn’t slip though the junction o Desmosomes: like anchors – create like an electric current attracted to each other… way STRONGER Hemidesmosomes: there is just one of them and it is attached to the ECM o Gap junction: used for communication Each cell has a tube connecting to the other cell so they can interact Cardiac muscle (heart): beat, and if they are all disconnected each cell would beat at their own pace, however with the junction they all beat at the same time