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Chapter 6: Tour of the Cell

by: Anthony.carrero

Chapter 6: Tour of the Cell Bio 1441

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Science > Bio 1441 > Chapter 6 Tour of the Cell

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well typed notes over the chaper
Cell and Molecular Biology
Dr. Christensen
Class Notes
Biology, cellular biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anthony.carrero on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Christensen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Cell and Molecular Biology in Science at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Biology Monday, August 29, 2016 12:57 PM Chapter 6 Tour of the Cell 6.1  Light Microscope (LM) o Light passes through specimen and lens, bending showing a magnified image  Electron Microscopes (EM) o Focuses beam of electrons through the specimen o Studying organelles  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) o The beam scans the surface of the specimen  Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) o Studies the internal structure of cells o Aims electron beam through very thin sections of the specimen 6.2 Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells  Cells- basic structural and functional unit of every organism o Prokaryotic (before nucleus)  Bacteria and Archaea o Eukaryotic (true nucleus)  Protists, Fungi, Animals, and Plants  All cells share certain features o Bounded by selective barrier called the plasma membrane o Inside all cells is jellylike fluid called cytosol  Subcellular components are suspended o Chromosomes  Carry genes in form of DNA o Ribosomes  Tiny complexes that make proteins according to gene instructions  Major difference is location of DNA o Eukaryotic cells hold DNA in nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane o Prokaryotic cells hold DNA in non- membraned nucleoid  Interior of both cells is called cytoplasm o In eukaryotic cells this refers to space between the nucleus and plasma membrane  Inside this cytoplasm lies variety of organelles with specialized form and function  This membrane bounded structures are absent in prokaryotic cells o In prokaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is organized into regions  Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells  Logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on cell size  Metabolic requirements also impose limits on the size of the single cell  Boundary of every cell is plasma membrane o Functions as selective barrier that allows passage of2O , nutrients, and wastes to service cell  Larger organisms do not have larger cells, just more cells Panoramic view of the eukaryotic cell  Basic fabric of biological membranes is a double layer of phospholipids and other lipids o Embedded in the lipid bilayer are diverse proteins  Each type of membrane has a unique composition of lipids and proteins suited to that membrane's specific functions o Mitochondria function in cellular respiration 6.3 The nucleus: information central  Nucleus contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell  The most conspicuous organelle o 5 µm in diameter  Nuclear envelope is a double membrane o Each membrane being a lipid bilayer separated by a space of 20-40 nm o Perforated by pore structures that are about 100 nm in diameter o Pore complex’s (protein structure) line each pore and plays role in the cell by regulating the entry and exit of proteins and RNAs and large complexes of macromolecules o At the nuclear side of the envelope lies the nuclear lamina  Netlike array of proteins filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope o Also evidence of a nuclear matrix  Framework of proteins fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior  Inside nucleus, DNA organized into discrete units called chromosomes o Structures that carry genetic information o Each chromosome contains one long DNA molecule associated with many proteins o Some proteins help coil the DNA molecule of each chromosome, reducing its length and allowing it to fit into the nucleus o The complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes is called chromatin  Prominent structure of non-dividing nucleus is the nucleolus o Appears as mass of densely stained granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin o Here a type of RNA (ribosomal RNA(rRNA)) is synthesized from instructions in the DNA Ribosomes: protein factories  Ribosomes are complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein o Cellular component that carry out protein synthesis  Cells having large rates of protein synthesis have particularly large numbers of ribosomes  Ribosomes build proteins in two cytoplasmic locales o Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol  Proteins made on free ribosomes function within the cytosol o Bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the ER or nuclear envelope  Generally, make proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes  For packaging within certain organelles such as lysosomes


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