Week 5: Organic Chemistry
Week 5: Organic Chemistry CHEM141A
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM141A at University of Vermont taught by Wurthmann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Week 5: Organic Chemistry 4.1- 4.6 (skip bicyclic compounds) Alkanes- previously called hydrocarbons, sole elements are H & C CnH 2n+2 The number of hydrogens atoms in an alkane is twice the number of carbons plus 2 additional hydrogen atoms. Saturated alkanes have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon. An aromatic ring in unsaturated because instead of each carbon atom having 3 hydrogen atoms on it, each carbon atom only has 2 hydrogen atoms attached. Substitution of a carbon defines its reactivity. A carbon bonded to one other carbon= primary carbon. A carbon bonded to two other carbons= secondary carbon. A carbon bonded to three other carbons= tertiary carbon. Naming: 1) Find the longest chain of carbons and name it. This is called the “parent chain”. a. The branches off of the parent chain are called substituents. 2) Identify substituents. 3) Count from closest end of the parent chain to name the substituents. a. Choose a numbering sequence that locates the substituents as efficiently as possible- lowest possible numbers. 4) Compile the name by organizing the substituents in alphabetical order. 5) Haloalkanes a. When a halide is a substituent on an alkane, use the following abbreviations: i. Fluoro- F ii. Chloro- Cl iii. Bromo- Br iv. Iodo- I 6) Classic Branching Patterns a. 3 carbons attached by a middle carbon- isopropyl b. 4 carbon attached by a middle carbon- butyl Molecular Motion Molecules with single bonds between carbons can rotate around the sigma bond, and the angles between hydrogen substituents can change. To accommodate for this motion, we use Newman’s Projections! Newman’s Projections
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