Chemistry Week 9/25 Notes
Chemistry Week 9/25 Notes Chem 100-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt McDonald on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 100-002 at Towson University taught by Rodney Dixon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Chemistry and Current Problems in Chemistry at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
9/26/16 Chemical Equations o Simple Ex. C + O 2= CO 2 (Reactants) (Product) o Written Phrase One atom Carbon plus one molecule Oxygen yields one molecule Carbon Dioxide Moles 12 o One atom 6 has a mass of 12 a.m.u. o One mole 126 has a mass of 12 grams o 1 mole = 6.02 x 10 of anything A.k.a Avogadro’s Number Simple Mole Equation o One mole Carbon (C) + one mole Oxygen (O ) = 2ne mole CO 2 Balancing More Complex Equations o For all equations, each side should have the same number of each type of atom o Ex. H 2 + O 2= H O 2 H—H + O=O = HOH Seem to lose 1 Oxygen Put a coefficient in front 2H 2 + O 2 2H O 2 H—H; H—H; O=O (2 moles) (1 mole) (2 moles) Becomes HOH, HOH Equation balanced 9/28/16 Formula Mass o Equivalent to the Atomic Number of an element o Ex. Helium (He) has 4.0 amu Hydrogen (H 2 has 1.0 amu (1.0 x 2 = 2.0 amu) Molar Mass o Equivalent to the Atomic number of an element per mole o Ex. Helium (He) has 4.0 grams per mole Hydrogen (H 2 has 1.0 grams per mole (1.0 x 2 = 2.0 grams per mole) Mass with Compounds o Ex. CH (4ethane) 1C = 1 x 12.0 amu 4H = 4 x 1.0 amu 12.0 + 4.0 = 16.0 amu o Same for Molar Mass but with grams, not amu Difference Between Formula and Molar Mass o Formula Mass = 1/(6.02 x 10 ) 23 23 o Molar Mass = 1 x (6.02 x 10 ) More Complex Balancing o H +2N = 2H 3 Not Balanced (Hydrogen) (Nitrogen) (Ammonium) o Put coefficients in front o 3H + 2 = 22H 3 6H + 2N = 2N6H Equally Balanced Acids o Properties Turn Litmus Red (indicator) Donate H ions (Hydrogen Ion) + Generate H O 3ions (Hydronium Ion) o Ex. HCl + H O = Cl + H O + (Hydrochloric (Water) (Chloride (Hydronium Acid) Ion) Ion) + H from HCl is donated to generate H O 3 Cl is subtracted from the equation to make Cl This is the ionization of a Strong Acid, where reactants totally become products o Ex. CH COOH + H O CH COO + H O + 3 2 3 3 (Acetic Acid) (Water) (Acetic Ion) (Ammonium) Ionization of a Weak Acid, since not all reactants become products One side gives, and the other helps gives back (Equilibrium) Bases o Properties Turn Litmus Blue (inidicator) Accept H ions Generate OH ions (Hydroxide Ion) o Ex. + NaOH Na + OH (SodiumHydroxide) (Sodium (Hydroxide Ion) Ion) Strong Base (reactants become products) o Ex. NH + H O 2 NH +4OH (Ammonia) (Water) (Ammonium (Hydroxide Ion) Ion) Weak Base (not all reactants become products) pH Scale + o Based on equation H O + H O2 2 H O + OH 3 Referred to as Autoionization of Water (Selfionization) + o In pure water, the concentration (amount) of H O = OH 3 o [ ] brackets indicate concentration (amount) of moles per liter o pH Chart + pH Value 3 ] O 1 10 = 1 2 2 2 10 (1x10 ) Neutral Value 4 10 (1x10 ) Acid Values 2 7 7 10 (1x10 ) 9 10 (1x10 ) 9 etc. Alkaline (Basic) Values o [H O ]3 [OH] = 10 14 o Why Lower than 7 is Acidic If [H 3 ] = 10 , then [OH] = 10 10 4 + 10 is the larger number, so it will be more acidic because of [H O ] 3 o Why High than 7 is Basic + 9 5 If [H 3 ] = 10 , then [OH] = 10 10 is the larger number, so it will be more basic because of [OH ] + th o Each Neutral Number (and its corresponding [H O ] number) is 3/10 away from the ones above or below it th Ex. 13 is 1/100 a difference 9/30/16 Electricity in Water o Ions in water make it electrically conductive (ex. Salt) Oxidation o Adding oxygen atoms Ex. C + O = CO Adding Oxygen 2 2 o Losing Electrons Ex. Fe = Fe + 3e Reduction o Losing Oxygen Ex. MgO = Mg + O Reducing Oxygen o Gaining Electrons Ex. Cl + e = Cl Oxidation and Reduction o Usually occur together o Ex. Na + Cl = Na Cl + Electrochemical Cells o Use oxidation and reduction o Especially in batteries
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