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Chemistry Week 9/25 Notes

by: Matt McDonald

Chemistry Week 9/25 Notes Chem 100-002

Marketplace > Towson University > Chemistry > Chem 100-002 > Chemistry Week 9 25 Notes
Matt McDonald

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About this Document

These notes go over: Chemical Equations Moles Mass Acids and Bases pH Scale Oxidation and Reduction
Chemistry and Current Problems
Rodney Dixon
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt McDonald on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 100-002 at Towson University taught by Rodney Dixon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Chemistry and Current Problems in Chemistry at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
9/26/16  Chemical Equations o Simple Ex.    C  +  O  2=  CO 2 (Reactants)     (Product) o Written Phrase  One atom Carbon plus one molecule Oxygen yields one molecule Carbon  Dioxide  Moles 12 o One atom  6  has a mass of 12 a.m.u. o One mole  126  has a mass of 12 grams o 1 mole = 6.02 x 10  of anything  A.k.a Avogadro’s Number  Simple Mole Equation o One mole Carbon (C) + one mole Oxygen (O ) = 2ne mole CO 2  Balancing More Complex Equations o For all equations, each side should have the same number of each type of atom o Ex.   H 2 +  O  2= H O 2                H—H  +  O=O  =   H­O­H  Seem to lose 1 Oxygen  Put a coefficient in front  2H 2 +  O   2  2H O  2             H—H; H—H; O=O   (2 moles)  (1 mole)  (2 moles)  Becomes  H­O­H, H­O­H  Equation balanced 9/28/16  Formula Mass o Equivalent to the Atomic Number of an element o Ex.  Helium (He) has 4.0 amu  Hydrogen (H 2 has 1.0 amu (1.0 x 2 = 2.0 amu)  Molar Mass o Equivalent to the Atomic number of an element per mole o Ex.   Helium (He) has 4.0 grams per mole  Hydrogen (H 2 has 1.0 grams per mole (1.0 x 2 = 2.0 grams per mole)  Mass with Compounds o Ex. CH  (4ethane)  1C = 1 x 12.0 amu  4H = 4 x 1.0 amu  12.0 + 4.0 = 16.0 amu o Same for Molar Mass but with grams, not amu  Difference Between Formula and Molar Mass o Formula Mass = 1/(6.02 x 10 ) 23 23 o Molar Mass = 1 x (6.02 x 10 )  More Complex Balancing  o H  +2N  = 2H      3             Not Balanced       (Hydrogen) (Nitrogen) (Ammonium) o Put coefficients in front o 3H  + 2  = 22H       3              6H + 2N = 2N6H                            Equally  Balanced  Acids o Properties  Turn Litmus Red (indicator)  Donate H  ions (Hydrogen Ion) +  Generate H O 3ions (Hydronium Ion) o Ex.   HCl + H O = Cl + H O + (Hydrochloric  (Water) (Chloride  (Hydronium         Acid)                         Ion)             Ion) +  H from HCl is donated to generate H O 3  Cl is subtracted from the equation to make Cl ­  This is the ionization of a Strong Acid, where reactants totally become  products o Ex.   CH COOH + H O                CH COO + H O ­ + 3 2 3 3    (Acetic Acid)        (Water)                         (Acetic Ion)     (Ammonium)  Ionization of a Weak Acid, since not all reactants become products  One side gives, and the other helps gives back (Equilibrium)   Bases  o Properties   Turn Litmus Blue (inidicator)  Accept H  ions ­  Generate OH ions (Hydroxide Ion) o Ex.  + ­  NaOH             Na  + OH          (Sodium­Hydroxide)           (Sodium    (Hydroxide                     Ion)        Ion)  Strong Base (reactants become products) o Ex.  NH  + H O 2            NH +4OH ­    (Ammonia)   (Water)                (Ammonium   (Hydroxide Ion)            Ion)  Weak Base (not all reactants become products)  pH Scale +  ­ o Based on equation H O + H O2       2     H O + OH 3  Referred to as Auto­ionization of Water (Self­ionization) +  ­ o In pure water, the concentration (amount) of H O = OH 3 o [ ] brackets indicate concentration (amount) of moles per liter o pH Chart +                       pH Value                3     ] O 1 10  = 1 ­2  ­2      2    10 (1x10 ) Neutral Value 4  10 (1x10 )         Acid Values              ­2  ­7 7  10 (1x10 )     9   10 (1x10 ) ­9        etc.      Alkaline (Basic) Values o [H O ]3 [OH] = 10 ­ ­14 o Why Lower than 7 is Acidic  If [H 3 ] = 10 , then [OH] = 10­ ­10 ­4 +  10  is the larger number, so it will be more acidic because of [H O ] 3 o Why High than 7 is Basic + ­9 ­ ­5  If [H 3 ] = 10 , then [OH] = 10  10  is the larger number, so it will be more basic because of [OH ] ­ + th o Each Neutral Number (and its corresponding [H O ] number) is 3/10  away from the ones above or below it th  Ex. 1­3 is 1/100  a difference 9/30/16  Electricity in Water o Ions in water make it electrically conductive (ex. Salt)  Oxidation o Adding oxygen atoms  Ex. C + O  = CO                     Adding Oxygen 2 2 o Losing Electrons  Ex. Fe  = Fe  + 3e ­  Reduction  o Losing Oxygen  Ex. MgO = Mg + O                   Reducing Oxygen o Gaining Electrons ­ ­  Ex. Cl + e = Cl  Oxidation and Reduction o Usually occur together o Ex. Na + Cl = Na Cl + ­  Electrochemical Cells o Use oxidation and reduction o Especially in batteries 


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