Psychology 3980 lecture notes, 9/27-9/29
Psychology 3980 lecture notes, 9/27-9/29 Psych 3980
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Britney Beckett on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3980 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 6: Surveys Goal of Research in Psychology: Description- Frequency Prediction- Association Explanation- casual Frequency claims validities: Construct validity is achieved through survey External validity is achieved through sampling Surveys/ Questionnaires: Carefully prepared questions improve the construct validity of a poll/ survey Question wording can change the results of a survey o Open-ended question= difficult to score and require a coding system o Forced choice= Multiple choices (A, B, C or D) o Rating scale= Likert scale “Strong agree” to “strongly disagree” options o Likert like scale o 1-5 options Issues that compromise Construct Validity: Leading questions o Have different meanings and solicit different responses because of the wording o Use of words people don’t understand o Use of acronyms o Wording of question o Question present unbalance Double-barreled question o Asking 2 questions in one Loaded questions Double Negatives o Using too many negatives will confuse the participant Things that affects Survey Question order Response set- having a sequence of questions that have same answer will lead to start answer all the questions the same without carefully reading the questions. o Acquiescence= when respondent agrees/disagrees with everything Reverse worded items are used to identify/ eliminate this. o Fence-sitting=respondent stay neutral for every question Using a ranking system with an even number of options forces respondents to lean one way or another Socially desirable responding o Responding in a way that reviewer would approve of. o Respondents are told their answers will be kept anonyms to less this issue but anonymity is not a perfect solution. o Self reporting surveys can be an issues because memory is not always accurate and people sometimes formulate answers with no reasoning. Observational Research Observer Bias o Sometimes we see what we want to see Observer effect o Presents of observer can change the behavior of those being observe o Target reactivity Preventing bias: Codebook o Clear rating scale used by researchers to make reliable judgments about observations with less bias Masked design (blind study) o Observer is unaware of the condition the participates have been assigned and unaware about what the study is about. Unobtrusive observation o Researcher makes themselves less noticeable to avoid observer effect o Research can also spend time with participants until they get use to their presence before recording observations o
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