Psy 321 Chpt. 6 & 7 Notes
Psy 321 Chpt. 6 & 7 Notes Psy 321
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Marilyn Mendolia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Psy 321 Notes Chpt. 6 & 7 Lectures 9/27/16 & 9/29/16 Emotional Arousal Schachter-Singer Theory o Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer o Emotion has two separate components: physiological arousal and cognitive label Physiological arousal – similar in all emotions Bodily state of arousal Cognitive label – different for each emotion Specifies the emotion o The emotional stimulus produces physiological arousal and a cognitive label, which produces an experienced emotion o Arousal states can be mislabeled Arousal may arise for one reason but get another label, and then produce a different reaction Excitation transfer: the idea that arousal from one even can transfer to a later event Schachter-Singer Study o Experiment demonstrating mislabeling/relabeling arousal o Participants told that researchers are studying the “effects of vitamin injections on visual cues” o Randomly participants receive either an injection of adrenaline (epinephrine) – a stimulant that causes heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate to increase OR a placebo (saline solution) which has no effect Everyone told that the injection contained the vitamins o Participants who received the adrenaline shot were either informed or not informed about the side effects of the drug o Next participants are exposed to a confederate who acted EITHER happy and joyous OR angry and resentful o Researchers found that the strongest emotional reactions were found among the people who had both received the stimulant and been told that the injection would not have any side effects o Participants who received the stimulant and were told it was a stimulant attributed their arousal to the injection rather than confederates behavior o Participants who were told the injection would give them a headache (misinformed) behave in a particular way (either angry or euphoric) o Conclusion: Bodily changes are necessary but we have to have the labeling process as well because it determines the particular emotional state that we are feeling. Also, we need a reasonable explanation because it reduces the likelihood of looking to the environment to determine an emotional state Video: Bridge Experiment: Subjects mislabel arousal as passion o This video can be found on blackboard under videos tab o Participants cross either a scary bridge that arouses fear or a safe “control” bridge that arouses no fear and then are approached by an attractive woman who asks them to make up a story and then offers her phone number afterwards o Participants on scary bridge mislabeled their fear-based arousal as attraction to the woman and were more likely to call her they also, their made up stories were more sexual o Conclusion: Meeting someone under conditions in which your heart is racing, makes you more likely to be attracted to them Chapter 7: How Attitudes are Formed Mere Exposure Effect: o Robert Zajonc o “Familiarity breeds liking” o The tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter then repeatedly o Zajonc Study: Conducted a series of studies in which participants were exposed to novel stimuli (Turkish words, Chinese-like characters, and yearbook photos of stranger) The more frequently participants saw each stimulus, the more they liked it Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov o A type of learning in which, through repeated pairings, a neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response o Meat powder – unconditioned stimulus – makes dogs mouth water (unconditioned response) o The first time researcher rings bell (neutral stimulus) dogs mouth does not water o Bell becomes conditioned stimulus if the researcher rings it every time the dog is fed and dog expects that every time it hears the bell it will be fed o Conditioned response – sound of the bell alone (which will make the dog’s mouth water even if there is no food) Operant Conditioning (instrumental conditioning) o Edward Thorndike & B.F. Skinner o A type of learning in which participants more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished Two Theorists: Nature of Affect o Dan Gilbert (Video on Blackboard Where Gilbert explains how we can be happier) Little things make people happier but they need to do them religiously over a long period of time Affective forecasting - the ability to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events Most people are fairly accurate at predicting which emotions they will feel, but they substantially overestimate how long they would feel that way. People also overestimate the intensity of their emotional reactions Difficult for us to predict what will make us happier and don’t know how long it will last o Ed Diener Happiness can be empirically measured Measures more general than Gilbert’s theory External conditions do little to change one’s level of happiness. After a certain threshold there seems to be no correlation between income and happiness Affective forecasting fails because we give a good assessment of our life in general but are not good at predicting specific emotional responses Scale of happiness that measures global happiness and life satisfaction Shame & Guilt (6-3c) Guilt – an unpleasant moral emotion associated with a specific instance in which one has acted badly or wrongly o Guilt says “I did a bad thing” o Guilt can be constructive because it motivates a person to right their wrong o Guilt is unstable and temporary because the feeling can change Shame – a moral emotion that, like guilt, involves feeling bad, but unlike guilt, spreads to the whole person o Shame says “I am a bad person” o Shame is usually destructive o Active and stable because people don’t feel there is much they can do to change it o Extends to the entire person Study: Washing Away Guilt o Whether idea of washing yourself clean can do anything to help with guilt Can moral threat be washed away People are brought into a lab to copy a story in first person Some of the stories were ethical in nature (helping co-workers) while others unethical in nature (sabotage co-workers) Afterwards the participants are shown either cleaning products or non cleansing products The participants who spent time copying the unethical stories found the cleansing products more appealing to sort of wash away guilt o Antiseptic Wipe Study: Subjects who cleaned their hands with antiseptic wipes were less likely to volunteer to help a person with a task than subjects who did not This shows how as humans we have an elicited need to clean ourselves of guilt Can We Regulate our Emotional Reactions? Emotion Regulation: Anything you can do to affect the occurrence, onset, or duration of an emotional reaction Theorists & Emotion Regulation o Lazarus We engage in emotion focused strategy to change how we feel 2 main categories: Problem-focused coping and Emotion-focused coping Problem-focused coping: directly facing the stressful situation and working hard to resolve it. Emotion-focused coping: use either mental or behavioral methods to deal with the feelings resulting from stress o Carver Gravitate towards certain strategies of copying and emotional regulation Have tendencies to use one strategy over another Strategies tell me about you as a person o Gross When do we do things to deal with an emotional event? Strategies differ from each other in the terms of when they have impact Antecedent focused strategy – things we do before the emotion has been fully activated; before it happens Response focused strategy – Do things after the emotion has occurred; emotion already underway and you’re changing it afterward Cullen –Study from Textbook o Social contact with close others can help us regulate our emotional reactions o Couples come into lab and let experimenter know how satisfied they are in their relationship o Wives are shocked while exposed to either threat or safety cues while holding her spouses hand, holding a strangers hand, or holding no ones hand at all o Wife reported less unpleasantness when holding her spouses hand as opposed to holding strangers hand or no hand at all o Also, just holding anyone’s hand decreased the level of arousal to the shock o Conclusion: Social contact from close others decreases stress and regulates emotion Emotion Regulation Study #2 (textbook 6-8b) o Tamir, Mitchell, & Gross o Sometimes we try to prolong our emotional reactions o Participants preferred to listen to angry music rather than other types of music when they expected a social interaction that would require confrontation and assertion o In contrast, participants anticipating a cooperative or constructive social interaction chose other types of music o Participants randomly assigned to either play a confrontational game (Soldier of Fortune) or a non- confrontational game (Diner Dash) People who were to play the confrontational game preferred to listen to music that was angry and aggressive while playing whereas those playing the non-confrontational game preferred to listen to non- confrontational music Attitudes Attitudes – global evaluations toward some object or issue o Attitudes are necessary and adaptive for humans. They help us adjust to new situations, seeking out those things in our environment that reward us and avoiding those things that punish us o Help us sort things into “good” and “bad” categories o Gordon Allport – a mental or neutral state of readiness to respond in a certain way Dual model of Attitudes: o Dual attitudes – different evaluations of the same attitude object: automatic attitude and deliberate attitude Automatic attitudes – fast, evaluative, “gut- level” responses that people don’t think a great deal about More difficult to measure than deliberate attitudes Deliberate attitudes – reflective responses that people think more carefully about 3 Components of Attitudes – Tri-Component View o Affect component – likes, dislikes, emotions Familiarity breeds liking Mere Exposure Effect – Zajonc Classical Conditioning o Behavior Component – intention to act in some way; volition Instrumental/Operant conditioning Rewards or punishments influences the evaluation of a person Bem’s Self-Perception Theory - the theory that people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling Facial Feedback – held pen in teeth as opposed to lips which facilitated facial muscles and had more positive evaluation of cartoons o Cognitive Component – Beliefs or information components Theory of Planned Behavior The role of behavioral intentions on the link between attitudes and behaviors Behavioral intentions not only determined by the person’s attitude but also by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control o Subjective norms – the person’s perceptions about whether significant others think he or she should perform the behavior in question o Perceived behavioral control – refers to the person’s beliefs about whether he or she can actually perform the behavior
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