E media Survey Week 4: Quiz 1 (chapters 1 & 2)
E media Survey Week 4: Quiz 1 (chapters 1 & 2) EMDT 1070
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marjan Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EMDT 1070 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lou Olenick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see E Media Survey in Electronic Media Technology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Week 4: Quiz 1 Chapter 1 & 2 CHAPTER ONE Media Communication Culture and Media Literacy. In this chapter, mass communication is defined as the process of creating shared meaning among two or more people.it criticizes the one way model of communication as it does not wholly reflect the communication process, rather it agrees with the theories of Osgood and Shramm which states that there are no permanent receiver or sender, rather an interchanging of roles exits . It defines culture a learned behavior of members of a given social group. He suggests that culture helps us categorize and classify our experiences and also helps define us, our world and the people in it. According to him culture cannot survive without communication, as communication is the only means that it can be transferred. Therefore the media plays a very special role in the culture of the people. Furthermore he defined media literacy as the ability effectively and efficiently comprehends and use any form of mediated-‐communication. In a bid to explain media literacy further he traced the history of writing starting from the oral period when the meaning of language is specific and local. As a result communities were closely knit and their members wer e highly dependent on each other for all aspects of life knowledge was passed orally and people were shown and told how to do things. Having a good memory was also crucial as myths and history were intertwined. He writes that more than 5000 thousand years ago, alphabets were developed independently in several places around the world. Picture based appeared in Egypt, Sumer, and urban China etc. he noted that the syllable alphabet as we know it today developed slowly and was aided by greatly by ancient semantic cultures and eventually flowered in Greece around 800 B.C. like the Sumerians the Greek perfected the easy alphabet of necessity. As modern writing developed, meaning and language became more uniform, communication could occur over a long distance and long periods of time with knowledge being transmitted in writing, power shifted from those who could show others their special talent to those who could write and read them. Elements of medical literacy • A critical thinking skill enabling audience memb ers to develop independent judgment. • An understanding of the pro cess of mass communication. • An awareness of the impact of the media on the individual and the society. • Strategies for analyzing an d discussing media messages. • An understanding of media content as a text that provides insight into one’s culture. • The ability to enjoy, understand and appreciate media contents. • Development of effective development skills • An understanding of the ethical moral obligation of media practi tioners • According to him, for a person to be media literate means the ability to understand content, and filter out noise and the ability to distinguish emotional from reasoned reactions when responding to content and to act accordingly. CHAPTER TWO The Evolving Mass Communication Process This chapter traces the history of the mass media and also deals with current trends in the mass media. It discusses concentration of ownership, conglomeration, globalization, audience fragmentation, hyper commercialization and convergence. The Author noted that the mass media system we have today has exi sted ever since 1830’s. He opined that it is a system that has weathered repeated significant change with the coming of increasingly sophisticated technologies. The penny pr ess newspaper (which was the first newspaper ) was soon followed by a mass market books and circulation magazines. As the 1800’s became 1900’s these popular media were joined by motion pictures, radio and sound recording. A few years later came television combining news and entertainment, moving images and sound all in the home, pretended for free. The traditional media found new functions and prospered side by side with television. Then more recently the internet and the World Wide Web came, this has given r ise to the media industries alliterating how they are structured and do business. The nature of the content and how they interact and respond to the audience In this chapter media outlets currently face problems such as, declining revenue and vie wership The solutions include: 1. Audience fragmentation: also known as narrow casting or niche marketing. Baran suggests that individual stations should narrow their programs to a specific audience, thus gi ven the selected audience attention. Example before the advent of cable television, people could choose from among the three commercial broadcast networks -‐¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ ABC, CBS, NBC, one noncommercial public broadcasting station, but today have t housands of viewing options. So to retain audience and attract advertisers each channel must now find a more specific group of people to make up its viewership. Example Nickelodeon and Disney junior targets kids, Disney XD targets older teens while Bravo c hannel upper income older people. 2. Hyper commercialization: this is a process of writing brands into production instead of going for separate advert in between programs. Example ABC writes Revlon cosmetics into the story line of its popular soap opera “all my children”, on desperate house wives the female’s stars shop regularly at Macy’s. Finally ends with developing media literacy skills were it places emphasis on proper interpretation of the content i.e. message as a vital tool in developing media li teracy.
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