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Historical Geology

by: Carrie Notetaker

Historical Geology EAES 240

Carrie Notetaker
GPA 3.526

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About this Document

Week 4 9/26/16 - 9/29/16 Fossils and the classifications of organisms
Historical Geology
Dr. Michael Kruge
Class Notes
Geology, Historical Geology, fossils
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrie Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAES 240 at Montclair State University taught by Dr. Michael Kruge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Earth and Environmental Sciences at Montclair State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Weeks 3 lecture 1 Chapter 3 9/26/16 – 9/29/16 THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE Fossils: traces of ancient life  fossilization ◦ hard parts – internal and external skeletons ▪ easily preserved ◦ soft parts – preserved in fine grained sediments under low oxygen conditions ◦ permineralization – plant cells infilled by precipitating minerals, usually tiny quartz crystals ▪ example ­ petrified wood ◦ molds and impressions ◦ casts ◦ trace fossils – tracks and burrows in soft sediments hardened into rock ◦ fossil fuels – coal, petrolium, natural gas The Six Kingdoms of Living Things  Eukaryotes ◦ protista (unicellular or multicellular) ◦ plantae ◦ fungi ◦ animals  Prokaryotes ◦ archaeobacteria ◦ eubacteria Taxanomic catagories  kingdom ◦ phylum ▪ class  order ◦ family ▪ genus  species  Phylogenies show natural clustering of species  a higher taxon (grouping) must be a clade (have a common origin) Protists  five groups of important microfossils  single celled group (plankton)  stromatolites ◦ make bulbous looking mats ◦ made up of laters of cyanobacteria  stromatoporoids ◦ important reef builders ◦ grouped with sponges ◦ used to determine depositional environments  archaebacteria – extreme conditions  eubacteria – cyanobacteeria (photosynthetic)  Protists (microfossils)     KNOW THIS  ◦ multicultural prostist ▪ giant kelp   brown algae ◦ Single celled algae (plankton) ▪ dinoflafellates  tough outer organic “shell” ▪ diatoms  hard parts ­ silica ▪ calcareous nannoplankton  hard parts – calcite ◦ chalk  form clusters ◦ protozoans ▪ radiolaria  silica  zooplankton  used as stratographic markers ▪ foraminifera  secrete calcite or cement grains together  used to tell H2O temp ◦ glaciation which alters amount of oxygen 18 ◦ dating ▪ Calcite indicates warmer water conditions ▪ silica indicates colder water conditions Fungi  single cell – yeastes  multi cell – mushrooms Plantae  vascular and nonvascular  gymnosperms and angiosperms Animalia   Phylum: Cnideria ◦ coral and jellyfish  Phylum: coelomates ◦ body cavity housing internal organs ◦ worms  Phylum: anthropoda ◦ invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. ◦ includes the insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans    Phylum: Mollusca ◦ commonly fossilized ▪ Class  Cephalopoda (squid, octopus, etc)  Gastropoda (snails)  Bivalva (clams)  Phylum: brachiopoda ◦ commonly fossilized ◦ clam like  Phylum: chordata ◦ have backbone ◦ coelocanth – lobe finned fish ▪ most modern fish ray­finned Fossils  tangible remains or signs of ancient organisms  found in sedimentary rocks – especially marine sediments  thousands to millions of years old  most fossils are hard parts of organisms ◦ teeth, skeleton ◦ crinoid  hard parts may be completely replaced by minerals ◦ secondary minerals (authigenic ▪ pyrite may form in a reducing environment (lacks oxygen)  stagnant H2Otra ◦ requires oxygen poor environemnt ◦ burial in fine grained sediment  permineralization ◦ infilling of woody tissue by inorganic materiala ▪ petrified wood  fossils need not be skeletal  mold – 3d negative imprint  impressions – flattened mold  carbonization – concentrated residue of remaining carbon  trace fossils ◦ provides behavioral info about extinct animals ENVIRONMENTS AND LIFE What defines an environment?  Oxygen level – reducing or oxydizing (redox)  temperature  wet or dry  light or dark  pressure (marine)  salinity  pH


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