Book Notes Chapter 6
Book Notes Chapter 6 Soci 101
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CHEM 120 05
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smjonesy11 Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soci 101 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Gibbs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 101 in Liberal Arts and Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Societies to Social Networks 6.1 Societies and Their Transformation ● The sociological principle is that the type of society we live in is the fundamental reason for why we become who we are ○ Society influences the way we think and feel ○ Technology is the key to understanding the changes making our society ● Hunting and Gathering Societies ○ Human group that depends on hunting and gathering for survival ■ All persons in the group contribute to hunting and gathering ○ Few divisions, little inequality ○ Shaman- someone thought to be able to influence spiritual forces ○ Nomadic groups- follow food sources ○ Egalitarian- possessing few personal possessions ○ Breaks into two directions: ● Pastoral and Horticultural Societies ○ Pastoral- herding societies ○ Domestic Revolution- 1st revolution ○ Based on the pasturing animals/crops ○ Remained nomadic- followed their resources of food ○ Horticultural- gardening societies ■ Developed permanent settlements ● No longer had to follow their food source ■ Cultivation of plants with hand tools ○ Not everyone was required to hunt and gather ■ Leads to a division of labor ● Required people to perform specific jobs for the community ● Leads to social inequality ○ Some families/clans required more goods than others ○ Lead to passing down personal possessions to other generations → wealth grew → power grew ○ The change from fewer to more possessions and from more to less equality ● Agricultural Societies ○ Agricultural revolution- 2nd social revolution ■ Based on the i nvention of the plow ■ Lead to agricultural societies ○ Allowed for “culture” activities other than farming ■ Philosophy, art,music, literature, architecture ■ Invention of the wheel, writing, numbers ■ The “dawn of civilization” ○ Inequality became a fundamental feature of society ■ Protecting privilege and power ● Groups began to protect themselves with armed men and weapons ● Demanded protection and money/taxes from others ■ Women became subject to males ● Men were in charge of most agricultural activities ○ In charge of the plow and cattle, etc ● Industrial Societies ○ Societies based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels ○ Industrial Revolution- 3rd social revolution ■ Machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power ○ More social inequality ■ Threw people out of their original lands ● Homelessness, starvation, desperate for work ● Gave owners loads of money ■ Workers had little to no legal rights ● Could not unionize ● No safe working conditions ● Protesting → fired from work ○ Returning to place of work → arrested/beat by security ● Strikes were illegal ○ Brought many goods to society ■ Workers won basic rights ■ The pattern of growing inequality was reversed ■ Home ownership was common ■ Ownership of automobiles/variety of consumer goods ■ Abolition of slavery ■ Monarchies → more representative political systems ■ More rights for women and minorities ■ Rights to vote, jury trials, cross-examination witnesses ● Post-Industrial (Information) Societies ○ Based on i nformation, services, high technology ■ vs raw materials and manufacturing ○ Do not produce as much ■ Transmit/apply information to provide services that others are willing to pay for ○ Lead to a 4th social revolution ● Biotech Societies ○ Is a new type of society emerging? ○ A society whose economy increasingly centers on modifying genetics to produce food, medicine, and materials ■ Centers on applying and altering genetic structures ○ Began in 1953? ■ Discovery of the double helix structure of DNA ○ In 2001? ■ The decoding of the human genome ○ The social significance of these changes: ■ As society is transformed, we transform with it ■ The transformations we experience are extremely fundamental ● Changes the ways we think about the self and life 6.2 Groups within Society ● Our society creates a ense of not belonging ○ Durkheim calls this anomie ■ Small groups can prevent a nomie ■ We all need a sense of belonging ○ Aggregate- consists of individuals who temporarily share the same physical space, but don’t view themselves as belonging together ■ Ex: shoppers standing in the same checkout line ○ Category- consists of people who share similar characteristics ■ Ex: all college women who wear glasses, men over 6 ft tall ■ A category is a statistic ■ These individuals still don’t think of themselves as “belonging together” ● Don’t interact with one another ● Primary Groups ○ Cooley ○ Primary groups- a small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation ■ Gives us a self, identity, feeling of who we are ■ Makes us feel loved, appreciated ○ Producing a Mirror Within ■ Humans have strong emotional needs ● Sense of belonging, feelings of self-esteem ■ When primary groups are dysfunctional: ● Fail to meet basic needs ● Create dysfunctional adults ○ Wounded people who make life hard ● Values of primary groups have fused into our identity ■ Primary groups have become our mirror within ● Secondary groups ○ Larger, more anonymous, more formal and impersonal ○ Based on shared interests, activities ○ Interact on the basis of a specific status ○ Tend to break down into primary groups ● In-Groups and Out-Groups ○ In-group: groups where one feels loyalty ■ “We” ○ Out-group: groups where we feel antagonism ■ “Them” ■ Seen as “bad” or “evil” regardless of their behavior and personality ● Reference Groups ○ Reference groups- groups we refer to when we evaluate ourselves ■ Family, friends, neighbors, teachers, co-workers, etc ○ Thinking of grad school? ■ Grad students or members of your desired profession may form a reference group ■ Consider their standards to evaluate your grades/skills ○ Can change our appearance, manners, vocabulary, change academic goals, etc ● Social Networks ○ Social networks- People who are linked to one another ■ Family, friends, acquaintances, students, co-workers, friends of friends ○ It’s a big spider web! ■ Everyone is connected somehow from person to person ○ Clique- the clusters within a social network who choose to interact with one another ○ Applied Social Analysis ■ The analysis of social networks is a part of applied sociology ● Ex: to reduce gang violence ○ When one is shot, others will shoot the rival members to “even the score” ○ Police add the names of victims to a linkage program to find their associations to find other potential victims and those who seek revenge ○ Small World Phenomenon ■ Milgram ● Address a letter to someone (the target), but don’t mail the letter to the target ● Actually sends the letter to “starters”- people who did not know these individuals ● Starters were to send the letters to people they knew on a first name basis who might know the “target” and so on and so on. ● Would the letters ever reach the target?? ● If so, how long would that chain be??? ■ Recent studies in attempt to replicate Milgram’s study have led to conflicting results likely due to how the researchers are choosing their samples and measuring links 6.3 Group Dynamics ● Group dynamics- how groups influence us and how we influence groups ○ Size of the group, leadership, conformity, decision making ● Small group- a group small enough that each member can interact directly with all of the others ○ Primary or secondary ● Effects of Group Size on S tability and Intimacy ○ Simmel ○ Dyad- the smallest group possible (2 people) ■ Marriage, love affairs, close friendships ■ Most intense/intimate of human groups ■ Tend to be unstable ● Requires both members to participate ● If one loses interest, the dyad collapses ○ Triad- a group of 3 people ■ Adding a person changes a group in fundamental ways ● Interaction between the first 2 people decreases ○ Creates strain ● Having a baby ○ The baby becomes prime focus and the couple’s interaction decreases ○ The marriage usually becomes stronger from this though ○ Coalitions- 2 members aligning themselves against 1 ■ Leaves a 3rd member excluded and feeling hurt ■ Creates an arbitrator or mediator- someone who tries to settle disagreements between the two ○ Key points: ■ As small groups grow larger, they become more stable but the intensity decreases ■ As a group becomes larger, speech becomes more formal ■ As a person is added to a group, the connections among people multiply ■ Dyad- 1 relationship ■ Triad- 3 relationships ■ Group of 4- 6 relationships ■ Group of 5- 10 relationships ■ Group of 10- 45 relationships etc etc ● Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior ○ Small groups- more informal ○ Larger groups- more formal ○ The division of small groups is inevitable ■ Adding persons increases connections ● Leadership ○ Leaders- people who influence the behaviors, opinions, or attitudes of others ○ Instrumental Leader- task oriented ■ Does not like to be side tracked ■ Reminds the group of its goals ○ Expressive Leader- socioemotional leader ■ Not recognized as a leader ■ Lifts the group’s morale ■ Makes jokes, offers sympathy ■ Increases harmony, minimizes conflict ○ Leadership Styles (3)- ways of expressing yourself as a leader ■ Authoritarian Leader- one who gives orders ■ Democratic Leader- one who tries to gain consensus ■ Laissez-Faire Leader- one who is highly permissive ● Peer Pressure: Asch Experiment ○ Conformity experiment ○ Which line on card 2 matches the size of the line on card 1? ■ The answer is obvious, but as many people begin to answer incorrectly, one would also guess wrong with the majority to belong in the group ■ By answering incorrectly, you are correct in the group ■ Conformity and peer pressure are strong enough forces to get most people to say things they know are false ● Authority: The Milgram Experiment ○ Shocking test ■ Teacher and learner ■ Teacher shocks learner after every wrong answer with increasing shocks ■ Experimenter continues to tell the teacher to continue even after the learners cries ■ Tests to see how far the teacher will go ● Global Consequences of Group Dynamics: Groupthink ○ Groupthink- a narrowing of thought by a group of people ■ Leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer ■ Suggesting alternative answers is a sign of disloyalty ■ Can be catastrophic: ● Example- Pearl Harbor ○ Brought US into WWII ■ Can make “good” people do “bad” things ● Government officials defended torture as “the lesser of two evils” ● Health professionals joined in to “help humanity” though unethical experimentation
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