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Pysch 101 Notes

by: Briana Notetaker

Pysch 101 Notes Psychology 101

Briana Notetaker
GPA 3.7

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Mod 5 Prof. Meloni Rutgers Uni
principles of psychology 101
Dr. Allyson Meloni
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Allyson Meloni in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see principles of psychology 101 in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Blue= vocabulary underline= key word Principles of Psychology Mod 5 Professor Meloni NEURAL AND HORMONAL SYSTEMS “Then its agreed- you can’t have a mind without a brain, but you can have a brain without a mind.” Biological Psychology-the study of behavior and biology in relation with the mind 1. Neural Communication: a. The Neuron (nerve cells) building blocks of the nervous system i. Cell body (soma)- nucleus with chromosomes, cell’s life support ii. Dendrites- receives information iii. Axon- transmit information away from the cell body  Synapse- separates neurons, junction between one neuron’s axon and one neuron’s dendrites iv. Neuron transmitters are chemicals that cross the synapse and they play a role in communication between neurons v. Myelin- insulating layer of fatty material, composed of glial cells, helps transmission of signals to other cells  Sensory and motor neurons have myelin.  Nodes of Ranvier- are the gaps in the myelin sheath b. Three Types of Neurons: i. Sensory- brain receives inform from the external world through ears, skin, mouth, etc. ii. Interneurons- allows message to travel from sensory neurons to motor neurons (outnumber sensor and motor neurons) iii. Motor- carry signals to the spinal cord to promote movement 2. Neural Communication a. Action Potential- a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon signaling and activating a neuron to transmit a message i. The electrical charge is gathered by dendrites and travels down axon to the synapse ii. This stimulates a release of neurotransmitters to repeat the steps iii. Only occurs when the electrical charge reaches a threshold (minimum intensity) iv. The neuron returns to original state after charge is transmitted v. All or None Response- electrical impulse is the same regardless of how much stimulation the neuron receives b. Resting Potential- cell has a negative charge because of ions i. Inside of the cell body there is a high concentration of Potassium (K+) and outside there is a high concentration of Sodium (NA+) ii. The cell body is semi-permeable meaning certain particles are allowed to move in and out of it iii. The cell overall has a negative charge because there is more K- than K+ c. Action Potential is Initiated i. When the electrical charge reaches the threshold, K+ channels close and NA= channels open allowing sodium to enter the cell ii. The cell charge inside the neuron increases until to reaches its threshold of +40 mv  The cell’s charge is -70 mv when a rest iii. Concentration gradient- higher concentration outside than inside iv. Electrical gradient- negative charge pulls into cell, attraction d. Action potential Travels down Axon i. Adjacent Na+ channels open ii. Action potential travels down the axon membrane iii. K+ channels open and move out of the cell and intracellular fluid becomes negative again iv. K+ channels close e. Na+/ K+ Pump Restores Ion Balance i. Both Na+ and K+ channels close with the use of a protein called Na+/K+ Protein pump ii. Pump restores resting state charge (-70 mv)  Depolarization- loss of inside and outside charge difference f. The Refractory Period i. Resting period when the cell cannot become active again ii. All of the positively charged Na has to be removed back outside before it can become active again 3. Two Messages Revieved by Neurons a. Excitatory- causes action potential to occur i. This is generated by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters b. Inhibitory- interrupts action potential 4. Anatomy of a Synapse a. The presynaptic neuron’s end in terminal buttons which house synaptic vesicles b. Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters c. Postsynaptic neuron’s dendrites contain receptor sites that fit specific neurotransmitters like a lock and key systems 5. What happens to remaining neurotransmitters in the Synapse? a. Reputake i. Neurotransmitters are absorbed back into presynaptic neuron b. Enzymes Deactivation i. Neurotransmitters are disassembled c. Autroreceptors i. Neurotransmitters bind to auto receptor sites d. Neurotransmitters passively drift out of the synaptic gap 6. The Nervous System- electrochemical communication network in the body to promote activity a. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) i. Controls sensory and motor neurons ii. Transmits CNS decisions to other body parts iii. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)- controls self-regulated actions iv. Somatic Nervous System- deals with skeletal nervous system and sensory input v. Sympathetic Nervous System- deals with arousal, using energy vi. Parasympathetic Nervous System- deals with calming, conserving energy b. The Central Nervous System i. Controls the brain and spinal cord, decision maker ii. composed of interneurons


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