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NUT 510 Module 2 Notes (Ch.3)

by: Kyri Allison

NUT 510 Module 2 Notes (Ch.3) NUT 510

Kyri Allison

GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 3: Digestion and Absorption
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
Helen (Eleni) Delfakis, MS, RDN
Class Notes
digestion, absorption, gastrointestinal tract, nutrition
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyri Allison on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUT 510 at American College of Healthcare Sciences taught by Helen (Eleni) Delfakis, MS, RDN in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Holistic Medicine at American College of Healthcare Sciences.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Digestion and Absorption 1. Taste and Smell – first step of the food experience a. Chemosenses i. Olfactory cells (scent) ii. Gustatory cells (taste) iii. Common chemical sense iv. Cephalic phase responses 1. Stimuli a. Cognition, sound, appearance, odor, taste/tactile 2. Responses a. Thermogenesis – increased heat production b.  Salivary glands – increased flow of saliva, changes in salivary  composition c. Cardiovascular System – increased heart rate and blood flow,  decreased cardiac output and stroke volume d. GI Tract – increased acid and digestive enzyme secretion,  motility, gut hormone release e. Pancreas – increased digestive enzyme secretions and hormone release f. Renal system – alterations in urine volume and osmolality 2. The Gastrointestinal Tract a. Organization i. Mouth to anus ii. Accessory organs 1. Salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder b. Functions i. Ingestion ii. Transport iii. Secretion iv. Digestion v. Absorption vi. Elimination c. Overview of Digestion i. Physical movement 1. Peristalsis 2. Segmentation ii. Chemical breakdown 1. Enzymes 2. Other secretions d. Overview of Absorption i. Absorptive mechanisms 1. Passive diffusion 2. Facilitated diffusion 3. Active transport ii. Assisting organs 1. Salivary glands a. Moisten food  b. Supply enzymes 2. Liver a. Produces bile 3. Gallbladder a. Stores and secretes bile 4. Pancreas a. Secretes bicarbonate b. Secretes enzymes 3. The Process a. Mouth i. Enzymes 1. Salivary amylase acts on starch 2. Lingual lipase acts on fat ii. Saliva 1. Moistens food for swallowing b. Stomach i. Hydrochloric acid 1. Prepares protein for digestion 2. Activates enzymes ii. Pepsin 1. Begins protein digestion iii. Gastric lipase 1. Some fat digestion iv. Gastrin (Hormone) 1. Stimulates gastric secretion and movement v. Intrinsic factor 1. Needed for absorption of vitamin B12 c. Small Intestine i. Section of the small intestine 1. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum ii. Digestion 1. Bicarbonate neutralizes stomach acid 2. Pancreatic and intestinal enzymes a. Carbs, Fat, and Protein iii. Absorption 1. Folds, villi, microvilli expand absorptive surface area 2. Most nutrients absorbed here 3. Fat­soluble nutrients go into lymph 4. Other nutrients go into blood d. Large Intestine i. Digestion 1. Nutrient digestion already complete 2. Some digestion of fiber by bacteria ii. Absorption 1. Water 2. Sodium, potassium, chloride (produced by bacteria) iii. Elimination 4. Regulation of GI Activity a. Nervous system i. Regulates GI activity 1. Local system of nerves 2. Central nervous system b. Hormonal System i. Increases or decreases GI activity  c. Circulation of Nutrients i. Vascular system ii. Lymphatic system d. Influences on Digestion and Absorption i. Psychological  ii. Chemical iii. Bacterial  1. 500+ bacterial species live in the GI tract 5. Nutrition and GI Disorders a. Constipation i. Hard, dry, infrequent stools ii. Reduced by high fiber, fluid intake, exercise b. Diarrhea i. Loose, watery, frequent stools ii. Symptom of disease/infection iii. Can cause dehydration c. Diverticulosis i. Pouches along colon  ii. High fiber diet reduces formation d. Heartburn and Gastroesophageal Reflux i. Reduced by smaller meals, less fat e. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) f. Colorectal Cancer g. Gas h. Ulcers i. Bacterial cause i. Dyspepsia j. Lactose Intolerance i. Native Americans have the highest level of lactose intolerance (100%) ii. Southeast Asians (98%) iii. Swedish (2%) k. Short Bowel Syndrome i. Difficulty absorbing fat­soluble vitamins ii. To enhance absorption, treatment includes taking a fat­soluble vitamin  supplement that easily mingles with water iii. May also need to take intramuscular shots of vitamin B12 because they are  unable to absorb this water­soluble vitamin l. Ileus i. It has been observed that chewing gum immediately following abdominal  surgery can cause a decrease or stoppage of intestinal function (ileus) ii. Ileus can lead to longer hospital stays, increased risk of infection, and  breathing difficulties 6. GI Movement a. Sphincters i. Movement from one section of the GI tract to the next is controlled by  muscular valves called sphincters ii. When closed, the sphincter prevents backflow of material in the GI tract b. Peristalsis and Segmentation i. Peristalsis and segmentation help to break up, mix, and move food through the GI tract ii. Periodic muscle contractions at intervals along the GI tract that alternate  forward and backward movement of contents, breaking apart chunks of the  food mass and mixing in digestive juices c. Enterohepatic Circulation i. During the recycling process, bile travels from the liver to the gallbladder and  then to the small intestine where it assists digestion ii. In the small intestine most of the bile is reabsorbed and send back to the liver  for reuse 1. Liver – cholesterol used to generate bile salts 2. Gallbladder – stores bile 3. Small intestine – bile emulsifies fats 4. Colon – bile trapped by fiber and lost in feces a. Remaining bile is reabsorbed into the blood d. Epiglottis i. During swallowing, the epiglottis closes off the air passage and prevents  choking 1. Covers larynx to prevent food from entering the trachea ii. May not always close completely, leading to choking 1. “Down the wrong pipe” e. The Stomach i. Churns and mixes food with secretions ii. Hydrochloric acid unfolds protein and stops salivary amylase action iii. Pepsin begins protein digestion iv. Pyloric sphincter controls movement of chyme from stomach to the small  intestine


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