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9/26-9/30 art history notes

by: Tara Gardner

9/26-9/30 art history notes ART 2350

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Art History > ART 2350 > 9 26 9 30 art history notes
Tara Gardner
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers the minoan and mycenaean cultures, as well as early india, early china, early japan, and a bit about mesoamerica
Art History Survey I
Mickey Abel
Class Notes
Art History, Art, Minoan Crete, Minoan, GreekMinoans, Mycenaean, Mycenaeans, History: India, India, China, Japan, MesoAmerica
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Gardner on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2350 at University of North Texas taught by Mickey Abel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey I in Art History at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
***Islands in the Mediterranean (Minoans, Mycenaens, Cycladic) build on each other*** o Minoans are peaceful and matriarchal o Mycenaeans more warrior-minded Minoa (cont.) Rhyton  A ryton is a bull shaped drinking vessels  Carved out of stone Engraved   This example has gold horns o Is indicative that it is a higher-status object  Ritualistic o Communal drink o Passed around for everyone Gold hornets  Made of gold o Immediately makes it a high level object  Very intricate o Super high level of craftsmanship o Minoans are a very artisan society  Gold is hard to work with and they had lots of gold jewelry  takes a certain level of skill Take-over by Mycenae  Minoa was eventually conquered by the mycenae o You can start seeing evidence of mycenaen culture in the artwork Mycenae Geography  Mainland Greece is mountainous and rocky o Cities built on higher ground  Defense  Closer to the gods Mycenae, Greece  Built on the top of a mountain  Irregularly shaped  Burial zone is circular o Circles symbolize eternal life o Probably had an earthen/stone cover o Markers on the tops of them  Only one entrance o Narrow gateway in the elaborate wall o Makes it easy to funnel people into the city, i.e. keep out who you don't want The Megaron  MEGARON-the most important place in the city o A structure with a gtiant circle in the middle  The circle can be used for fire/gathering water  Post holes surrounding the circle would have had columns that held a roof  Placed at the cardinal directions  Roof would have had a hole to let smoke out  Because it's placed on the highest part of the mountain, you get an axis mundi that carries the smoke into the heavens  Yo look up artist renditions of these things up cuz they're actually super cool looking o Heavily decorated walls o Lots of shields depicted Lions gate  Combination of post-and-lintel and corbelling  Made of Ashlar stones o Ashlar-when the stones are cut (more brick-like in nature)  Relieving triangle-it's not holding up anything, but rather is decorative o Depicted a public proclamation o In this case two lions on the sides of a pillar  Reference to the epic of gilgamesh  Possibly made of two different kinds of stone Tiyrns  very similar to Mycenae  Difference is the wall structure o Mycenae had a gateway that funneled you into the city o In tiyrns you actual walk through the walls in a kind of tunnel-type structure  tunnels are corbelled--braced against each other in an arch-like formation  Cost effective Treasury of Atreus  Very elaborate burial zone  Covered with a beehive dome o Interior created by corbelling ashlar blocks into a dome o Cut very, very carefully so the interior is perfectly smoothed  Relieving triangle is missing o Probably very decorative and brightly colored  Cultures bury important objects with their dead o Funerary masks  Gold hammered from the back  Indicative of advanced artisans  This one was amazingly not crushed o Solid gold rytons o Smaller decorative items (cups, daggers, etc) Mycenae Treasury of Atreaus (cont.)  Buried a lot of things that probably had to do with the burial ritual o Ex. Bull-shaped solid gold rhyton o Mentioned that comparing bulls in different cultures could be on the exam  All the things in the tomb indicative that it was probably a male tomb Dagger  Demonstrates another kind of craft technique o Inlaid gold in silver in an iron base  Depicts a hunting party confronting lions o Many of the warriors are holding shields  Figure-8 shield shape very popular  Ceremonial sword as opposed to usable sword o Craftsmanship and technique important o Display of power/propaganda  There are many examples of these of these swords preserved Warrior vase, mycenae  Depicts a series of warriors in full costume o Gives us ideas about period dress o On the other hand, the Minoan's vase displayed peaceful farming scene  This vase very static and controlled (Kamaris-ware from Crete is more flowy in design) o Repetition o Registers help with organization/provides a ground line (for the warriors to stand on) India Geography  People traveled from the Mediterranean to India all the time o Early Trade routes  Cities built around sacred rivers Concerns  Monsoon season o Flooding  Vegetation (wild growth overtaking architecture) Small square tiles  Indian equivalent to Mesopotamian seals  Big animals/livestock depicted Pool complex  A collection of architecture based around a central pool o Think about the mystical properties of water  Cleansing/purifying  Appears somewhat fortified Pottery  Registers (organizational)  Intricate (organic designs) o Flower shapes that play with negative space  This design is repeated in other objects Statues: Priest-king mohenjo-dano  Seems to be a higher status statue o Circles on headdress and arm o Depicts a very manicured beard o More flower shapes on the toga Torso  Depicts an unclothed torso  Probably at one point had movable arms  Probably of a lower status figure o Naturalistic vs idolized (similar to Ancient Egypt in this regard) Yakshi and Fly Wisk  Works as an intermediary between the gods and people o Seen as neither here nor there, but somewhere in between heaven and earth  Has abundant, dramatic jewelry  Has a circle on her forehead o Symbol of her knowledge and ability to communicate with the gods  Very sexualized (soft belly, large breasts and hips) o fertility Lion capital  Depicts four lions connected at the rear o Each symbolizes a cardinal direction Sits on top of the column  o Base is a circular disk o Columns normally used to mark the axis mundi China Geography  China shares many of the same geological/weather patterns as India  Again, many major rivers that determine where people live Neolithic bowl  Reminiscent of american-indian pottery Depicts boats and fish marking the cardinal directions  o Circular; symbolic of the cosmos  Found in a burial o Meant to go over the head of the dead o "cosmos fits over your head" Cong  Made of jade o The "high status" stone of the east o Has a slightly translucent quality (like diorite) o Fairly rare o Comes in many colors (yellows, greens, blues)  Has 3 important parts o the circle of the cosmos o The square of the earthly world o a hole through it connecting the two  Shows a small animal (taotai) o A morphing of many different kinds of animals o A creature that's not firmly planted in either world (heaven or earth)  Similar to the Indian yakshi o Found in various kinds of objects Fang ding  Made of bronze  First evidence of casting o Make a mold and then pour the liquid into it until it hardens o Cast in pieces and then hooked together  Holds some kind of liquid o Ritualistic use  Decoration conveys similar cosmology ideas o Each side gives a sense of the cardinal directions o Again depicts shapeshifting many taotai Kuang  Pouring urn  Again encompasses the idea of shapeshifting animals o What kind of animal depends on which way you look at it 65 bells  Sets of bells common in ancient china  Each bell has two tones depending on where you hit it  Also have shapeshifter decorations China Review from last week Taotai-a fictional creature pictured frequently on Chinese artifacts  Metaphysical and between worlds  Shapeshifter-appears as a morphing between different animals 65 bells  Come in sets, not as individual bells  Each bell has two tones depending on where you hit it  Sound is indicative a ritualistic use New artifacts: Pi Disk, Jade  A round, lifesaver shaped disk made of jade The hole is symbolic of connecting the heavens and the earth   Has shapeshifters (taotai) around the inside of the disk (around the center hole) and around the outer edge of the disk Early Americas/Mesoamerica Geography  Mountainous  Tropical  Green  Lots of water La venta  Very basic pyramid probably made of dirt o As with all pyramids, you can put an axis mundi through the top  Encompassed by a large rectangle o At some point probably surrounded by various buildings large head statues o Way over life sized o Has some kind of hat/helmet o Very flat faced with wide features Cave alter  Probably a sacrificial alter  The "cave" is depicted as a giant mouth o A man is crawling out of this mouth  He is depicted as half-man/half-jaguar  In Mesoamerican mythology, he is the offspring of man and jaguar  Serves a similar place in Mesoamerican mythology as the taotai has in Chinese mythology  Helmet is actually a jaguar head  The jaguar body would have made something of a cape Lots of little objects o Lots of little men with very flattened heads  Vaguely monolithic in shape o Normally set up in a kind of communal setting  Circle/semi-circle Japan Geography  Surrounded by water o Lack fortification o Boating culture  Mountainous o Can't really grow their own crops o Probably communicating with mainland china High level bury sights (keyhole burial sites)  Configured in layers  In the center there is a slightly raised earthen structure (grave) o Graves added to added over time (i.e. more than one person buried there)  Basically like giant walled-parks Vases  Placed in the ground and meant to be filled or refilled with water  Fired, but not polished or painted  Very common  Very organic/abstract/unstructured Dogos  Set up around the perimeter of the graves o Often thought of as guardians  Vaugly shapeshifter-esque  Become more advanced as time goes on (resemble human warriors as opposed to being more-animalesque) Bells  Individual rather than in setts  Cast--share craftsmanship techniques with china  Sometimes depicts various scenes of day-to-day life


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