GEOG 1001 9.30.16
GEOG 1001 9.30.16 Geog 1001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Basinger on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Nicholas Dunning in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Introduction to Physical Geography 9.30.16 Earth Materials: The Rock Cycle Geologic cycle: a model describing the relationship between the hydrologic cycle, the tectonic cycle, and the rock cycle Mineral: earth substance with a consistent chemical composition Rock: a naturally-formed mixture of one or more minerals Rock cycle: the cyclical transformation of earth surface materials between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic states Igneous Rock Igneous rock: rock formed when magma cools and solidifies Magma: molten (melted) rock Extrusive igneous rocks: rapidly-cooled lavas and other materials with relatively small crystals that were erupted onto the earth’s surface. o Examples: rhyolite, basalt Intrusive (plutonic) igneous rock: slowly-cooled igneous rocks with relatively large crystals that solidified deep underground (in plutons/batholiths). o Examples: granite, gabbro o Close-up photograph of granite. Granite is a type of intrusive igneous rock formed when magma cooled slowly in a subterranean context (pluton). As the magma cooled three distinct mineral crystals formed: dark feldspar, shiny mica, and white quartz Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary rock: rock formed by accumulated sediments that have been solidified by “lithification” (some combination of cementation and compression) Sediment: earth material that has been deposited by a fluid agent (most typically by flowing water) The formation of sedimentary rock always involves three processes: o weathering, transportation, and deposition QUIZ QUESTION #8: Which of the following processes are involved in the formation on sedimentary rock? Weathering, transportation, and deposition Clastic sedimentary rock: rock made from cemented particles (clasts): o Smallest to Largest Clay – shale Silt – siltstone Sand – sandstone Gravel – conglomerate Chemical Sedimentary Rocks: rock made from precipitated minerals o Limestone = calcium carbonate Fossiliferous limestone: limestone with abundant Ordovician period (438-505-million-year-old) fossils of marine plants and animal’s characteristic of the warm, shallow sea that occupied the Cincinnati region (then part of North America’s continental shelf) o Fossil hydrocarbons: partially decomposed organic tissue occurring in sedimentary formations (e.g. coal, oil, natural gas) Metamorphic Rock Metamorphic Rock: Rock that has been altered by heat and/or pressure Metamorphic rock typically forms along convergent plate boundaries QUIZ QUESTION #9: Metamorphic Rocks are most likely to have formed where? Convergent Plate Boundaries (subduction and suture zones) Schist is the most common type of metamorphic rock Weathering Processes QUIZ QUESTION #10: Which of the following is not a major tectonic process? Weathering Tectonic movements, orogeny, and volcanism are land forming processes powered by the release of Earth’s internal energy. The further transformation of landforms, and the earth materials that comprise landforms, by weathering, erosion, and plant growth are processes powered by solar energy. Regolith: layer of loose material on the Earth’s surface; derived from weathered bedrock Physical (mechanical) weathering: the breakdown of rock by the physical separation of pieces Chemical weathering: disintegration of rock by the chemical alteration of constituent minerals Rate of weathering depends on: o The nature of the material being weathered o climate