Mythology Notes Week 5
Mythology Notes Week 5 CLS 1600-03
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylee Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLS 1600-03 at Wright State University taught by Jeannette Carol Marchand in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Greek Mythology in Classical Mythology at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Mythology Notes CLS 1600 Week 5 • Apollo mostly concerned with mediating between god and man. & communicating between Zeus and man. Sends plagues as messages. miasma: religious pollution inspiration: “to breath through” oracles, prophecies; poetry and music are inspired. • Why did the greeks what Apollo’s priest’s daughter to be taken? eleos: pity; force that binds us to one another; quality associated with Apollo; plays a role with supplication. • Agamemnon doesn’t accept the supplication of the priest because he doesn't have eleos. Back to the Poem: • A Plague has hit. • Achilles says its about the girl they kidnapped because Agamemnon sent her dad away without letting him supplicate him; its obvious: they have to give the girl back. • Agamemnon gets mad and argues with Achilles. • Agamemnon sees he’ll have to give the girl back. • They distributed all the things out. When will they get Troy? Agamemnon cannot be left without the physical promise. He says he needs to take Achilles’ “prize” (Iphigenia). • The other Greeks go with it; no one will speak up against it because they don't want their own prize taken away. Achilles never ends up with the girl in myth. Unsolvable situation. Poor negotiation on Agamemnon’s part. Iliad present Achilles as justiﬁed in his reaction to this. • Achilles has no honor without his prize. He says “take the girl back since you gave it to me but you better not take anything else of mine or I’ll kill you.” He cant keep it by force. Honor is given by the group. • Achilles wants to kill Agamemnon and then Athena shows up. She pulls him by his hair and only Achilles hears Athena. Basically something is pulling him back. She suggests that he takes a different course. Instead of killing Agamemnon he removes himself from the society. • Why? he wants the Greeks to realize how much they need him. He needs the ﬁghting to start so he goes to his mother to ask Zeus to help; to stir up the • ﬁghting and to help the Trojans do well so the Greeks realize they need him. Zeus cannot let the Trojans win the war because this started over the violation of marriage (one of his social contracts). • Thetis goes and supplicates Zeus and he decides to help. This will cause a lot of problems because even letting Trojans almost win will cause a headache because Hera is a huge supporter of the Greeks. • There is a prophesy that Achilles will die young at Trojan War or live a long life if he doesn’t. • Why ﬁght if there is no respect or honor? because he’ll be remembered forever. Achilles cares about the here and now. Parallel myth about Ajax the Greater: Ajax the Greater: greatest ﬁghter after Achilles. Huge old fashion giant; huge shield; defense of the greeks; ultimate physical hero; not a good talker; all action. • Greeks get the idea that the 2 greatest guys should just ﬁght and that will be the war. Hector (Trojan) vs. Ajax (Greeks) Fight all day, nobody can get the better of the other. They have to admit this didn't work. After ﬁghting all day, they shake hands. They decide to become friends, exchange gifts. Hector gave Ajax a sword. End of the war: Ajax is defending everyone while Achilles is sitting out when one man falls in battle, both sides want his body. Both sides are pulling. Achilles is killed in battle; the armor is extra special; everyone wants it. Ajax beats back the Trojans and get the body of Achilles and brings him out. After troy falls, the Greeks got all of the stuff. Ajax says he deserves it because he dragged the body out. Odysseus wants it because he came up with the plot of the Trojan Horse. He was the bronze. Strategy was more important than force so they gave the armor to Odysseus. Ajax feels that his prize has been taken away. He wants to kill all of the Greeks. Goes for it. Athena blinds him, makes him truly insane. He goes out and is killing the sheep and cattle. When he comes out of it, the Greeks have captured him, he sees what he’s done, theres no way to reconcile with the group. So he goes apart from the Greeks, onto the beach, puts is sword into the ground and falls on it and commits suicide. What is this sword? The one he got from Hektor. A ﬁgure who cannot learn to comprise. Greeks return the girl to her father, restore their relationship with Apollo. When Achilles returns, what should bring him back? That the Greeks restore his honor. What really brings him back: The death of his friend. • He begins to meditate for his own death. • Achilles is acting contrary to the norm. • The only one who can defeat Hektor: Achilles. - Killing Hektor will be his great fame. - How do they differ? Hector has a wife & a child. Why does that matter? • Zeus sends a dream down to Agamemnon that says if you rouse the men up tomorrow, they will take Troy. Basically, God just lied to Agamemnon. - He goes and gets everyone together, and go and ﬁght. - Helen comes and looks at the ﬁghting - Paris vs. Menelaus - Paris sees him and hides, then they have a one on one; they decide to make a truce. • Menelaus gets the better of Paris, drags him to the Greek lines but Aphrodite breaks his chin strap and takes Paris away and Paris is on a bed and tells Helen to come into the bedroom and she says her other husband was better and Paris tells her she's hot and to get into the bed and she does and they have sex. • Menelaus is trying to ﬁgure out where Paris is, Athena comes down and says you have a clear shot at Menelaus. Shoot him, take him out. He shoots, Athena goes over and swats the arrow away and defends Menelaus at the same time. Diomedes: son of Tydeus Theomachos: man who ﬁghts directly with a god. Bellerophon: hero. - Athena helps him tame the Pegasus and kills the Chimera. • He attempts to ﬂy up to Olympia on his Pegasus but Zeus says no and strikes him with a bolt and he dies. ^ point: Dimedes doesn't do that. • Athena steps up in the chariot behind Diomedes. She is the Goddess that helps the men in battle. She gives Diomedes a special ability: to tell who is a god and who is a mortal. That way he can stay away from the gods. She says if you see Aphrodite though, go for it. They do see Aphrodite (on the Trojan side) and Diomedes wounds her. She goes up crying to Zeus. Zeus says “you had no business being down there in the ﬁrst place; don't complain to me.” Does this mean she is weak? No. Warfare is just not her realm. Athena vs. Ares • Then they spot Ares on the Trojan side. Athena says lets go after him, they go, Diomedes thrusts his spear at him and Athena helps push the spear. Ares goes and complains to Zeus too about Athena this time. Zeus says “you’re the most hated, I wish I could throw you down.” • Why are there 2 gods associated with war? Ares is the blood, the gore, etc… he is what the enemy brings. Clayous: glory. Athena is with the greeks, Ares is with the Trojans. Apollo is on the Trojan side. Athena is also the defender of Troy. What? Ha. She who defends her people. What is this scene all about? Theomachos; man attacking the Gods. • • Trojans start to get nervous; Hektor goes back to the city to his mother and asks her to go to Athena and ask for help; he also visits his wife: Andromache. She runs down to Hektor and begs him not to go back to the battle ﬁeld. Hektor tells her he has to go back because he would be ashamed of what people would say of him. Son of Hektor: Astyanax “the lord of the city”. • Asytanax is afraid of Hektor because of his horse hair hat. Hektor hopes he dies and is buried before his wife is captured; this foreshadows Hektor’s death as well as his wife being taken. • Hektor and Paris are brothers. • Achilles will never establish a family in the Iliad. • Back to the war: Greeks are forced to build a barricade around the ships. Trojans want to burn the ships so they can’t leave. Greeks send guys to convince Achilles to come back. Ate: mental blindness leading to ruin. Ate made Agamemnon take away Achille’s prize. - How will you know when ate is affecting you? After the outcome. When it’s too late. • Achilles has said he will not return to the ﬁght until Hektor brings ﬁre to his own ship. Patroklos: Achille’s friend. He asks to put Achilles’ armor on so he can go out onto the ﬁeld and scare the Trojans. They are afraid of Achilles so when they see his armor they will think it is him. It works for a while. After Patroklos tries to climb the wall 3 times and fails, Hektor knows its not Achilles and pushes back again. • Apollo slaps Patroklos on the back and knocks off his helmet and exposes him. (It’s as if Patroklos is sacriﬁced to Apollo.) Hektor kills Patroklos. He strips him of the armor and puts it on. • Achilles doesn't bury Patroklos immediately (until he avenges him). He goes back to the ﬁght. He is mourning so he doesn't eat and Athena brings down the gods food and feeds it to Achilles. Achilles’ mother, goes to the god Hafestous and asks him to make Achilles’ armor. He makes armor for the gods. • Achilles goes to the wall and calls out 3 times with his great call and makes immortal ﬁre blaze around his head. This scares the Trojans back. He is almost like a god now. He says: “I now formally unsay my anger at the greeks”. menus: not doing things in the norm • As Achilles goes back, he's different. God ________ Man _______ Animals ^Achilles pushes against these lines. • Homer says its true of most warriors. kleos: good reputation • Achilles is just killing everyone that gets in his way. • Comes across Lykaon. Lykaon knows he is no match for Achilles. He has supplicated Achilles before. Achilles kills Lykaon. He is sinking to the animal level. • After he kills Lykaon, he runs into the Skamander river. • He meets Hektor. Athena urges Hektor to make his stand against Achilles. When he sees Achilles coming, he tries to run away. He doesn’t want to die. Achilles puts his knife through his throat and Hektor reminds him he will die soon after he kills Hektor. He says “please give my body back for burial”. Achilles confronting his mortal self. He runs Hectors body around his own tomb in circles while riding on the chariot. • • Achilles ﬁnally buries Patroklos - Funeral Games in his honor. • Achilles drags Hektor around again after the funeral. Gods say this cannot stand. Achilles does not have eleos right now. • • Gods go down and tell King Priam to supplicate Achilles. - Priam goes and supplicates him and kisses the hand that killed his own sons. Achilles is moved by his old age; by pity (eleos); he's thinking about his own father who only has one son (himself). He is imagining his father mourning his own death and accepts the supplication. At this point Achilles starts following the proper things. He also offers to let Priam stay with him and they share a meal. He's offering Xenia. He goes one step further; he agrees hell return Hektor (Priam’s son) and he will see to it that the war is delayed for the funeral. This draws him back to the customs. • Iliad ends with the funeral ﬁre of Hektor - symbol of what happened at the war - symbol of Achilles’ death that will happen soon We have to piece together the rest of the story. • • How does Achilles die? - defender Gods of Troy strike him down - vulnerable on the back of his heel (the only spot open on the armor); he cannot be killed by anyone ﬁghting fairly - shot down by Apollo Fall of Troy: • The bow of Herakles (NOT Hercules) - bow is currently in the hands of Philoctetes. - how? gift of friendship of a favor; creating a bond between them. - the favor: helped him kill himself • Greeks ﬁnd out they have to have that bow to defeat Troy. • Story: Sailing to Troy; Philoctetes is bitten by a snake on his foot. Smells bad; they're on boats in small places.This is bad omen. Taking him with them would make the Greeks polluted. Greeks aren't willing to help him kill himself. They abandon him on the island and supports himself using the bow. Odysseus has to use his skills of speaking to get Philoctets back so they can get the bow to take down Troy. • In Athena’s sanctuary in Troy, Diomedes and Odysseus have to break in and steal the Polladion so they don't owe Athena anything anymore. • They need somebody to be the great warrior for the fall of Troy: Achilles’ son: Neoptolemos. He pops out of the Trojan Horse. He is about 18-20 and he should be about 9. • How he got his son: While he was hiding on the island of Skyros with all they unmarried girls and he had a child. - yes he has a son; only the iliad said he never gets his prize but that ended so he had a child. • Bow is used to shoot down Paris and it has poison on it. Gives him a slow death. Taking the City: • Get somebody to portray the city and let everyone in. • They have the Horse for Athena so she likes them and not the Trojans. • They kill all of the men and round up the women when they pop out of the horse. • Who most represents all the things that happen at the fall of Troy? Neoptolemos. • Things he does: slaughters an innocent (Hektor’s son Astyanax); he throws him from the walls of Troy. He storms Priam’s palace and cuts down the remaining sons before Priam’s eyes, and he goes to Zeus’ altar inside and he supplicates him. Priam supplicates Neoptolemos and Neoptolemos cuts off Priam’s head while he's supplicating Zeus. • The Greeks did not see this as a good thing. • Noptolemos does the opposite of what Achilles did with the supplication of Priam The rape of Cassandra: by Ajax the Lesser Cassandra: daughter of Priam; Apollo wanted her, she agrees and he gives her the gift of Prophesy and he spits in her mouth when she changed her mind. People don't believe her when she says a prophesy.