Intro to Research Chapter 6 Week 4
Intro to Research Chapter 6 Week 4
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kim Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Armstrong State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 6 Self- report measures Writing questions with high construct validity involves many small decisions. o An example: imagine if you were a researcher interested in attitudes about legalizing marijuana. Decision to make on self-report measures What question format should you use? Open-ended Questions: allows people to respond to the questions freely. o Primary advantage is that is allows people to tell you what is important to them whether you thought about it or not. o Disadvantage is that you might never get the stuf that you care about; coding the results will be time consuming for you and the participant. Close-ended Questions: provide people with specific rating dimensions of interest. o Forced choice: for nominal data. An example of this would be: Are you in favor of legalizing marijuana? Yes, or no. o Likert scale: for interval data. This is an agreement scale. An example would be: I favor legalizing marijuana. o Semantic diferential scale: a scale from something like foolish to wise. An example is: legalizing marijuana is…. How should you phrase the question? Avoid leading questions: makes one answer seem clearly better or more correct than the others. o Example question is: do you think it is about time marijuana was legalized? Avoid double-barreled questions: asking two question at once. o An example is: do you think legalizing marijuana will decrease crime rated and increase the health of the population? Try to avoid negatively worded questions: using negations makes questions more difficult to understand. o An example would be: do you not believe that marijuana should not be legalized? Think about your question order: responses in earlier questions can afect the answers of later questions. How can we get people to answer more accurately? Even when people want to answer accurately they might be afected by response set (short cuts). Acquiescence: the tendency to say yes to everything no matter what you ask. o The partial solution to this would be to include reverse scored items. Fence sitting: when you stay close to the middle of the scale 2 o A solution to this would be even number of scale points. Sometimes people are more concerned with looking good than responding accurately. Social desirability: concern over the impression of one’s responses might convey. o Solutions to this are: Anonymity and confidentiality. Give people a social desirability scale and account those score when it comes to your analyses. Include a few items to catch social desirability responding. Use surreptitious measures. Observational measures. Observations measure: recording actual behaviors and not thoughts or feelings. o Observational measures can be: Audio or video recording. Transcripts. Live observations. o An example: imagine you are a researcher interested in how couples fight. Decisions to make on observational measures Where will the observation occur? 3 Naturalistic observation: observing behavior as is naturally occurring with no intrusion of the researcher. Participant observation: becoming part of the world you wish to observe as a researcher. Contrived observation: observe the behaviors in a research setting. o An examples would be the love lab. Will participants know they are being observed? Undisguised observation: the participants will know they are being observed. Reactivity: people may change their behavior because they know they are being watched. o An examples is the Hawthorn Efect: you know you are being watched so you change your behavior. Disguised observation: participants don’t know they are being watched. o This is okay if the behavior is entirely public. Partial concealment strategy: participants know they are being observed but don’t know why. How will behavior be analyzed? Narratives: full descriptions of the behaviors. o An easy way to remember: it is like a “play by play” approach. Checklists: count the occurrences of specific behaviors. Temporal measure: know the timings of the behaviors. Duration: how long the behavior lasted. 4 Latency: time between an event and the response. Rating scale: outside parties make subjective about behavior on specific measures. Researchers can harm the construct validity of observational measures if they are not careful. Observer bias: observers’ expectations can influence their interpretation of the participant’s behavior. Observer expectancy efects: observes’ expectation can actually influence the participants’ behavior. 5
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