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MUS014, Popular Musics of the World Week #1 Notes (Professor Lysloff)

by: Carolyn Polo

MUS014, Popular Musics of the World Week #1 Notes (Professor Lysloff) MUS 014

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > Music > MUS 014 > MUS014 Popular Musics of the World Week 1 Notes Professor Lysloff
Carolyn Polo
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Hey everyone! These are my class notes from the first three lectures by Professor Lysloff. It includes material on the definition and origins of popular music, Music & Politics, Latin America & Jam...
Popular Musics of the World
Rene Lysoff
Class Notes
NuevaCancion, Tropicalia, Media, samba




Popular in Popular Musics of the World

Popular in Music

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carolyn Polo on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 014 at University of California Riverside taught by Rene Lysoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 482 views. For similar materials see Popular Musics of the World in Music at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Carolyn Polo Professor Lysloff MUS 14 Week 1 notes Lecture 1 (September 27, 2016) ❖ Popular Music​ -- music of the people, or the masses, as opposed to art music or classical music ➢ Popular music has democratic implications meaning it is associated with the working/middle class ■ Referring to the reading (Manuel, Chapter 1), democracy is a consumerist society. It utilizes music in a consumerist, or democratic, context. An example of this would be the use of a song that was written and meant to be rebellious or protesting a social conflict is used in an advertisement; further losing its original meaning. ❖ Characteristics of popular music: ➢ Association with media technologies ■ Popular music is dependent on the media. At first, music could only be heard in person. There was no way of sharing or spreading music. This type of music is called folk music. Soon the invention of the phonograph(record player) would allow music to be spread a little further. Then the inventions of cassette tapes, compact discs, and finally digital forms were created. ■ Music is a “​sound object​” in the se​ se that it is ​something that can be bought and sold ➢ Urban origins ➢ Performers are not usually formally trained ➢ Associated with art music in the West ➢ Secular in orientation (no religious connection) ■ Instead of religious purposes, popular music serves as a form of entertainment ➢ High turnover of repertoire (popular music changes over time and very quickly) ■ Think of a popular song you heard on the radio a month ago. This song probably had its time in the spotlight, but it doesn’t play on the radio anymore and another song has taken its place. ➢ Promotes personality cults (a personality cult is the admiration of a certain person or thing; in this case music) ❖ Mass Media ➢ In the late 20s, broadcast radio was introduced ➢ Print media (sheet music) ➢ Audio recordings, music videos, films ❖ Recording Technologies ➢ Phonograph ➢ Cassette tape ➢ CDs ➢ Digital forms (itunes, spotify, rhapsody, etc.) ❖ What is media? ➢ It is technology that can deliver or store information ➢ There are two types: interactive and unidirectional ■ This is basically the difference between new (interactive) and old (unidirectional) technologies. For example, unidirectional technologies include television in which video broadcasting is sent to your television and in no other direction. New technologies allow for your own interaction ❖ Schizophonia ➢ Schizo -- “split;” phonia -- “sound” ➢ Split sound from its source ■ Sound can be dislocated in time and/or space ■ For example, the use of a microphone to amplify one’s voice ■ Another example, includes videos of musical performances. If you are watching a video of a performance, then you (the audience) are not physically present for the performance. ➢ sound/music is objectified and commodified ❖ Cultural Imperialism ➢ There are two opposing views on cultural imperialism: conservative elitism and Neo-Marxist critical theory ■ Conservative elitism​ believes that music is vulgar and represents the masses (working/middle-class and poor). It is seen as a threat to the arts. ● Comes from below ■ Neo-Marxist critical theory​ believes that music taste is manipulated by the upper class ● Comes from above Neo-Marxist Conservative elites Lecture 1 continued: Music and Politics (September 27, 2016) ❖ Video shown in class: Jimi Hendrix @ Woodstock 1969 ➢ Song: Star Spangled Banner ➢ Stylized with guitar--sounds imitating sounds of war ➢ Performance took place during the Vietnam War ■ One of the most conflicting wars the U.S. was involved in ➢ The political statement: counter-cultural views on the war. The Star Spangled Banner represents patriotism, but the song itself is about war. With Hendrix’s stylized version (which adds guitar solos by himself between stanzas that sound like explosions), he is pointing at the duality of patriotism(good) and war(bad). ■ Patriotism is violent ➢ Another dimension is added to this political statement considering Hendrix is a black man and also considering the time in which his performance took place (1969) ■ Many black men were drafted into the war because many of them could not afford college ❖ What is meant by “political?” ➢ Originally: “public” behavior; an implicit distinction between public and private existence ■ Running for public office (governing) ■ Proposing legislation, making laws, voting, campaigning ■ Influencing behavior of state officials ➢ Nowadays: there is no clear distinction between private and public behavior ■ Establishing and exercising power ■ The personal is political (LGBTQ+ rights, feminism, etc); the government decides who and what you are and what you can do ❖ How can music be political? ➢ It always occurs in real time, therefore it is rooted in a particular context ■ For example, the Jimi Hendrix performance took place during the Vietnam War and therefore is rooted in the context of war ➢ Music creates a ​sound space ​which ultimately can create a social space ■ Unless you are deaf, you cannot escape sound. The proximity in which a sound is created and can be heard is a sound space. ➢ It can meet individual or group needs ■ For example, sometimes to cope with a break up, people will listen to certain types of music to feel better. ➢ Its use is not fixed but can be negotiated ■ The meaning of a song can be different for different people. One of the greatest things about music is that people can interpret it in their own way. ➢ It provides effectively empowering experiences ❖ T.A.Z. -- Temporary Autonomous Zone ​(theory developed by Hakim Bey) ➢ Music is circumambient -- it creates a very real sense of space ➢ It is dynamic and symptomatic of energy ➢ It has a powerful presence and alters subjective time ➢ The music of a people is a social relationship embodied in real people in real contexts ➢ Music is experiential and ephemeral (lasts for a short amount of time) Lecture 2: Latin America and Jamaica (September 27, 2016) ❖ Nueva Canción​: New Song ➢ Pan-latin movement ➢ Guitar based ➢ Accompanied by solo vocalist ➢ Political contexts ■ Especially prominent in authoritarian states ❖ “El Lazo” by Victor Jara ➢ Victor Jara -- Chilean singer/songwriter ■ He wrote many protest songs/political songs during Pinochet’s rule ■ Eventually was arrested by Pinochet’s military and killed ■ Aligned himself with the rural poor ➢ El Lazo means The Noose ➢ A political song about how the government does not take care of its people well. People are living in poverty. The song relates to the working class and the poor. ➢ Cueca​: ¾ time signature (meaning there are 3 beats per measure and quarter notes count as a single beat) ❖ “Danza di Cala Luna” by Inti Illimanti ➢ Chilean group ➢ Includes guitar, charango(which is a small Andean guitar), quena(a wind instrument known to be the traditional Andean flute), panpipes(shown in photo below because I don’t know how to describe it), el bomba(a type of drum Photo from: Lecture 3: Brazilian Samba and Carnival (September 29, 2016) ❖ Samba ➢ rooted in Carnival ➢ Street samba -- older kind of samba including brass band and percussions as well as people dressed in costumes and often throwing water at each other ➢ Urban samba -- costumes, dancing, marching (parades), heavily sponsored ❖ Favela​: hillside slum, shanty town ➢ Samba is associated with poor areas (favelas) ❖ Carnival​: a celebration that marks the beginning of lentin ➢ Religious based ➢ Liminality​ -- a threshold betwixt and between ■ Carnival is liminal; it marks this threshold between normal living and lent. As a reaction to lent (in which people must give something up and often includes fasting), people act strangely (dress up in costumes and participate in parades. These behaviors are considered strange because it is different from how people normally behave in society on a daily basis. It is during this threshold that odd behavior comes out. ■ Liminality is described to be a dream-like state ➢ Carnival is a type of playful rebellion ■ As celebrated as Mardi Gras in Louisiana, which means fat tuesday, people will eat, drink and participate in parties and parades which they will not be able to do during lent (rebellion) ■ Relates back to T.A.Z. ➢ Carnival can create: ■ Communitas: ​ feeling of being together even for a short amount of time ■ Liminal time ■ It’s a spectacle; it’s meant to be observed ■ Highly structured and controlled ➢ Candomblé​: dancing to honor the gods ❖ Samba Musical Characteristics ➢ “17 Anos” ■ Choral melody in unison ■ Call and response texture in vocals ■ Instrumental accompaniment ■ Repetitive melody and rhythms ➢ “Samba Do Gringo Paulista” by Suba and “Abnegado De Rosas” ■ Polyrhythmic: having multiple rhythms at once. In this case, duple and triple meters are utilized ● for those that do not know much about music here is a 24 second youtube video I found that illustrates what a duple:triple polyrhythm sounds like: ❖ Tropicália ➢ Manifesto Antropofago by Oswaldo de Andrade ■ Meaning “Cannibal Manifesto” ➢ Artistic movement -- resisting western culture by “eating” it; taking it and making it your own ➢ “Cada Macaco” ■ rock/jazz element ■ Influenced by American 60’s rock ■ Reaction against musical cliche ➢ “Anima” ■ Just another example of music from the tropicália movement ***all songs mentioned can be found on iLearn under listenings (in case you haven’t listened to these songs, I recommend doing so as it is likely listening will be a part of exams) ***if anyone needs clarification or has any questions about these notes, please contact me at ​ ***Thanks for purchasing my notes! I hope they were helpful :)


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