E media survey week 5, Quiz 2, Chapters 3,4 and 5
E media survey week 5, Quiz 2, Chapters 3,4 and 5 EMDT 1070
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CHAPTER THREE Books In this chapter history of books and printing presses, is discussed. Problems they face are also considered and solutions suggested. The first printing press arrived on North American soil in 1638 only 38 years after the Plymouth Rock landing. It was operated by a company called Cambridge press. Printing was limited to religion and government documents. The first book printed in the colonies appeared in 1644 —the whole book of psalm sometimes referred to as the Bay p salm book. Among the very few secular titles were those printed by Benjamin Franklin annually. The almanac contained shorty story, poetry, weather forecasts and other facts and figures useful to a population now in command of its environment. The 1800’s saw a series of important refinements to the process of printing: continuous roll paper which permitted printing of standardized pages was invented in France at the very beginning of the century. Soon after in 1811, German inventor Friedrich Koenig converted the printing press from muscle to steam power , this speed up the production of printed materials. Baran notes that the book industry is bound by many of the same financial and industrial pressures that constrain the media but book more than the others ar e in position to transcend the constrains. Functions of books: • Books are agents of social and cultural change. • Books are important cultural repository. • Books are our windows on the past. • Books are important sources of personal development. • Books are wonderful sources of entertainment. Because of their wealth as cultural reposition and agents of change, books have often been targeted for censorship. A book is censored when someone in authority limits publication of or access to it. Censorship occurs in all media. This is a major challenge book face today, examples of books censored are ‘The outsiders’, ‘fallen angel’ by Walter Myer etc. there are different categories of books: Higher education books for colleges and universities, El -‐hi books for elementary and secondary school etc. In the concluding part of the chapter, new trends in book printing and publishing such as; e -‐books, conglomeration, convergence etc. were discussed. Like other chapters, the chapter ends with developing media literacy skills with ‘J. K. Rowling’s “Harry potter” in focus. CHAPTER FOUR Newspapers This chapter examines the relationship between the newspaper and its readers, it looked the medium’s root beginning with the first papers following them from Euro pe to colonial America were the traditions of today free press were set. It also studies the cultural changes that led to creation of Penny press and the competition between these mass circulation dailies that gave rise to ‘ yellow journalism’ it also reviewed the modern newspaper in terms of its size and scope discussing different types of papers plus the importance of newspapers as an advertising medium. Finally the positive and negative impacts of technology such as the rise in online newspapers and changes in the nature of newspaper readership are discussed. History Ii Caesar’s time Rome had a new paper the “ Acta Diurna” (actions of the day) written on a tablet and was pasted on the wall after each meeting of the senate, its circulation was one. The news papers we recognize today have their roots in the 17th century Europe. “Corontos” a one page news sheet about specific events, were printed in Holland in 1620 and imported to English by British booksellers who were eager to satisfy public demand for inform ation about continental happenings that eventually led to what we know today as ‘thirty years wars’. English man Nathaniel Butter, Thomas Archer, and Nicholas Bourne eventually began printing their own occasional news sheets using the same title for consec utive editions. They stooped publishing in 1641. The same year that regular daily accounts of local news started appearing in the news sheet, these for runners of daily newspapers were called “ Diurnals” Political power struggle in England at this time boot ed the fledging mediums as partisans on the side of the monarchy and those on the side of the parliament printed Diurnals to bolster their positions. When the monarchy prevailed it granted monopoly rights to the Oxford Gazette; the official voice of the crown founded in 1665 and later renamed the London Gazette. This journal; used a formula of foreign news, official information, royal proclamation and local news that became the model for the first colonial newspaper. The concept of “Yellow journalism” is a study in excess or sensational reporting of sex, crime and disaster news it is dine with grant headlines, heavy use of illustrations and over reliance on cartoons and color. It derived its name from the Yellow kid ,a popular cartoon character of the time. Type of Newspapers. • National daily Newspapers: this type of paper enjoys wide readership and unlimited circulation across towns in the country. • Large metro Politian dailies • Suburban and small town dailies • Weeklies and semi weeklies • The ethnic press • The alternative and dissident press —this type of newspapers is mostly weekly and is available to readers at no cost. • Commuter paper-‐ modeled after a common form of European newspaper, this paper is a free daily designed for commuters. CHAPTER FIVE Magazines The dynamics of the contemporary magazine industry; paper and online and its audience are discussed in this chapter. The medium’s beginnings in the colonies, its pre -‐war expansion and explosive growth between the civil war and w orld war were also highlighted. Finally the chapter examines some of the editorial decisions that should be of particular interest to media literate magazine consumer. Magazines were a favorite medium of the British elite by the mid -‐ 1700’s. Two prominent colonial printers hoped to duplicate that in success in the new world. In 1741 in Philadelphia, Andrew Bradford published ‘American magazine’ or a monthly view of the political sate of British colonies. Followed by Benjamin Franklin’s “General magazine’ an d ‘Historical chronicle’ composed largely of reprinted British materials. These publications were expensive and aimed at small number of literate colonist. Lacking an organized postal system distribution was difficult and ne ither magazine was successful ‘American magazine’ produced three issues, ‘General magazine’ six. Yet between 1741 and 1794, 45 new magazines appeared although not more than three was published in the same time period. Entrepreneurial printers hoped to attract educated, cultured and wealthy gentlemen by copying the London magazines. Even after the revolutionary war, U.S magazines remained clones to their British forerunners. These early magazine were aimed at literate elites interested in short stories, poetry, social commentary and essays. The magazine did not become a true national mass medium until after the civil war. The modern era of magazines is characterized by a different relationship between medium and audience. Magazines were truly Americas first national medium and like books t hey served as important force in social change especially in the ‘muckratry” era of the 20th century. This name was coined by Theodore Roosevelt as an insult to the government. Scope and structure of magazines : • Trade magazines; carries stories, feature a nd ads aimed at people in specific professions and are either distributed by media professional organizations themse lves or by media companies. • Individual company and sponsored magazine; produced by companies specifically for their own employees, c customers and stockholders or by clubs and association. Spe cifically for its members. • Consumer magazines; they are sold by subscription at newsstands, books stores etc. Trends and convergence in magazine publishing : • Online magazine: this is made possible by the convergence of magazine the internet most magazines now produce online editions offering special interactive feature not available to their hard-‐copy readers. • Custom magazines: custom publishing is the creating of magazines specifically designe d for an individual company seeking to reach a very narrowly defined audience. There are two broad categories of custom publishing: brand magazines and magalogue. • The developing media literacy segment focused on “Recognizing the power of graphics” it cri ticized the over use of graphics by media houses. Baran pointed out that such alteration in pictures restructures the reality the events they represent.